Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Fluorides, Topical: Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.Fluoride PoisoningCariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tin Fluorides: Inorganic fluorides of tin. They include both stannic fluoride (tin tetrafluoride) and stannous fluoride (tin difluoride). The latter is used in the prevention of dental caries.Calcium Fluoride: Calcium fluoride. Occurring in nature as the mineral fluorite or fluorspar. It is the primary source of fluorine and its compounds. Pure calcium fluoride is used as a catalyst in dehydration and dehydrogenation and is used to fluoridate drinking water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride: A sodium fluoride solution, paste or powder, which has been acidulated to pH 3 to 4 and buffered with a phosphate. It is used in the prevention of dental caries.Phenylmethylsulfonyl Fluoride: An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Hydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Compomers: Composite materials composed of an ion-leachable glass embedded in a polymeric matrix. They differ from GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS in that partially silanized glass particles are used to provide a direct bond to the resin matrix and the matrix is primarily formed by a light-activated, radical polymerization reaction.Beryllium: Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Dental Enamel Solubility: The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.Fluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Dentin SensitivityPotassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Dentin Desensitizing Agents: Substances which reduce or eliminate dentinal sensitivity or the pain associated with a source of stimulus (such as touch, heat, or cold) at the orifice of exposed dentinal tubules causing the movement of tubular fluid that in turn stimulates tooth nerve receptors.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Amelogenesis: The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Corrosion: The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Periostitis: Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Ameloblasts: Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.