Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Colorectal Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and abnormalities of the COLON; RECTUM; and ANAL CANAL.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
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