Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.RestaurantsFood: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Menu PlanningDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Western World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.TexasMeat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.United StatesIranHealth Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Schools: Educational institutions.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).
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