Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Faculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Nursing Faculty Practice: Clinical practice by members of the nursing faculty in order to maintain a balance in their nursing activities--clinical, education, and research.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Personnel Turnover: A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Pharmacy: The practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.United StatesEmployee Performance Appraisal: The assessment of the functioning of an employee in relation to work.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Schools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Plagiarism: Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Libraries, MedicalComputer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Self-Evaluation Programs: Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Awards and PrizesAdministrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Oral Medicine: A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Credentialing: The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Time Management: Planning and control of time to improve efficiency and effectiveness.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Information Literacy: The ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and use the needed information effectively.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.NebraskaFamily Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Library Surveys: Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.Manuscripts, MedicalCommunism: A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Dentists, Women: Female dentists.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Tooth Preparation: Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Pharmacy Residencies: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in the practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Sexism: Prejudice or discrimination based on gender or behavior or attitudes that foster stereotyped social roles based on gender.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)TennesseeNational Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Job Application: Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Vocational Guidance: Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.WisconsinTeaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Knowledge of Results (Psychology): A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.Specialty Boards: Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.Librarians: Specialists in the management of a library or the services rendered by a library, bringing professional skills to administration, organization of material and personnel, interpretation of bibliothecal rules, the development and maintenance of the library's collection, and the provision of information services.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Hospitalists: Physicians who are employed to work exclusively in hospital settings, primarily for managed care organizations. They are the attending or primary responsible physician for the patient during hospitalization.Retirement: The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Physician Executives: Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Military Dentistry: The practice of dentistry as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Journalism: The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.KansasRole Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
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