Esophagitis: INFLAMMATION, acute or chronic, of the ESOPHAGUS caused by BACTERIA, chemicals, or TRAUMA.Esophagitis, Peptic: INFLAMMATION of the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by the reflux of GASTRIC JUICE with contents of the STOMACH and DUODENUM.Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Chronic ESOPHAGITIS characterized by esophageal mucosal EOSINOPHILIA. It is diagnosed when an increase in EOSINOPHILS are present over the entire esophagus. The reflux symptoms fail to respond to PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS treatment, unlike in GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE. The symptoms are associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to food or inhalant allergens.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Esophagoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Hernia, Hiatal: STOMACH herniation located at or near the diaphragmatic opening for the ESOPHAGUS, the esophageal hiatus.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Esophageal Stenosis: A stricture of the ESOPHAGUS. Most are acquired but can be congenital.Barrett Esophagus: A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Esophageal pH Monitoring: Analysis of the HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION in the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS. It is used to record the pattern, frequency, and duration of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Heartburn: Substernal pain or burning sensation, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric juice into the esophagus.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Esophageal Motility Disorders: Disorders affecting the motor function of the UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; the ESOPHAGUS body, or a combination of these parts. The failure of the sphincters to maintain a tonic pressure may result in gastric reflux of food and acid into the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX). Other disorders include hypermotility (spastic disorders) and markedly increased amplitude in contraction (nutcracker esophagus).Papio cynocephalus: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern equatorial and east Africa. They are smaller than PAPIO ANUBIS and have a thinner mane.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: Back flow of gastric contents to the LARYNGOPHARYNX where it comes in contact with tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract. Laryngopharyngeal reflux is an extraesophageal manifestation of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Esophageal Sphincter, Lower: The physiologic or functional barrier to GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX at the esophagogastric junction. Sphincteric muscles remain tonically contracted during the resting state and form the high-pressure zone separating the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS from that of the STOMACH. (Haubrich et al, Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed., pp399, 415)Esophageal Diseases: Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.Duodenogastric Reflux: Retrograde flow of duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the STOMACH.Fundoplication: Mobilization of the lower end of the esophagus and plication of the fundus of the stomach around it (fundic wrapping) in the treatment of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX that may be associated with various disorders, such as hiatal hernia. (From Dorland, 28th ed)2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Dilatation: The act of dilating.Esophagogastric Junction: The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.Papio hamadryas: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, which has a well-studied trilevel social structure consisting of troops, bands, and clans.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Caustics: Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.Histamine H2 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.Sucralfate: A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.Lansoprazole: A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.Gastric Fundus: The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Esomeprazole: The S-isomer of omeprazole.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Diet Therapy: By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Flatulence: Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Eructation: The ejection of gas or air through the mouth from the stomach.Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y: A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.Oral Sprays: Pharmacologic agents in the form of a mist or spray delivered into the body through the mouth.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Hoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Cisapride: A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Perilla frutescens: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is an ingredient of Banxia Houpu (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Hypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Diet, Gluten-Free: A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Esophageal Perforation: An opening or hole in the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by TRAUMA, injury, or pathological process.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Dexlansoprazole: The R-isomer of lansoprazole.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.