Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Foreign Medical Graduates: Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)United StatesTeaching: The educational process of instructing.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Specialty Boards: Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Licensure, Medical: The granting of a license to practice medicine.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.American Medical Association: Professional society representing the field of medicine.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Aspirations (Psychology): Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Credentialing: The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Schools: Educational institutions.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Osteopathic Physicians: Licensed physicians trained in OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE. An osteopathic physician, also known as D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy), is able to perform surgery and prescribe medications.Great BritainForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Self-Evaluation Programs: Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.CaliforniaFaculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Information Science: The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Job Application: Process of applying for employment. It includes written application for employment or personal appearance.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Vocational Guidance: Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Newfoundland and Labrador: Province of Canada consisting of the island of Newfoundland and an area of Labrador. Its capital is St. John's.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Awards and PrizesSelf-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Physicians, Primary Care: Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Nurse's Role: The expected function of a member of the nursing profession.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
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