Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported: A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Denture, Partial, Fixed: A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Dental Prosthesis Retention: Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.Denture Retention: The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Denture, Complete, Lower: A complete denture replacing all the natural mandibular teeth and associated structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying mandibular bone.Denture, Overlay: Removable prosthesis constructed over natural teeth or implanted studs.Denture, Partial, Removable: A partial denture designed and constructed to be removed readily from the mouth.Tooth, Artificial: A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.Dental Implants, Single-Tooth: Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Dental Implant-Abutment Design: The plan and delineation of DENTAL IMPLANT fitting with DENTAL ABUTMENT.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Jaw, Edentulous: The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Dental Prosthesis Repair: The process of reuniting or replacing a broken or worn dental prosthesis or its part.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Stomatitis, Denture: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Denture Identification Marking: Any system of defining ownership of dentures or dental prostheses.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Denture Precision Attachment: A precision device used for attaching a fixed or removable partial denture to the crown of an abutment tooth or a restoration. One type is the intracoronal attachment and the other type is the extracoronal attachment. It consists of a female portion within the coronal portion of the crown of an abutment and a fitted male portion attached to the denture proper. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p85; from Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p264)Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Yttrium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.Dental Occlusion, Balanced: Dental occlusion in which the occlusal contact of the teeth on the working side of the jaw is accompanied by the harmonious contact of the teeth on the opposite (balancing) side. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556)Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Penile Prosthesis: Rigid, semi-rigid, or inflatable cylindric hydraulic devices, with either combined or separate reservoir and pumping systems, implanted for the surgical treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Neodymium: Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Visual Prosthesis: Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Zinc Phosphate Cement: A material used for cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a temporary restoration. It is prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid, water, and buffers. (From Bouchers' Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Alveolar Ridge Augmentation: Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Neural Prostheses: Medical devices which substitute for a nervous system function by electrically stimulating the nerves directly and monitoring the response to the electrical stimulation.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Ossicular Prosthesis: An implant used to replace one or more of the ear ossicles. They are usually made of plastic, Gelfoam, ceramic, or stainless steel.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)AmputeesSurface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Maxillofacial Prosthesis: A prosthetic appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face, missing as a result of deformity, disease, injury, or surgery. When the prosthesis replaces portions of the mandible only, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Larynx, Artificial: A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Penile Implantation: Surgical insertion of cylindric hydraulic devices for the treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Prosthesis Coloring: Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Prosthesis Retention: Holding a PROSTHESIS in place.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Cementation: The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Amputation Stumps: The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Maxillofacial Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of an appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face. When only portions of the mandible are replaced, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION.