Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Silicone Oils: Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sesame Oil: The refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of one or more cultivated varieties of Sesamum indicum. It is used as a solvent and oleaginous vehicle for drugs and has been used internally as a laxative and externally as a skin softener. It is used also in the manufacture of margarine, soap, and cosmetics. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Linseed Oil: The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Iodized Oil: A preparation of oil that contains covalently bound IODINE. It is commonly used as a RADIOCONTRAST AGENT and as a suspension medium for CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Castor Oil: Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.TriglyceridesFatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.von Ebner Glands: Small tubulo-alveolar salivary glands located beneath the circumvallate and foliate papillae.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Cod Liver Oil: Oil obtained from fresh livers of the cod family, Gadidae. It is a source of VITAMIN A and VITAMIN D.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.gamma-Linolenic Acid: An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Tea Tree Oil: Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.Rats, Inbred F344Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Fatty Acids, Omega-6: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Azoxymethane: A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Croton Oil: Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.