Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.MichiganProgram Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Researcher-Subject Relations: Interaction between research personnel and research subjects.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.MontanaTranscultural Nursing: A nursing specialty created to answer the need for developing a global perspective in the practice of nursing in a world of interdependent nations and people. The focus of this nursing discipline is on the integration of international and transcultural content into the training. Courses include study in the area of cultural differences, nursing in other countries, and international health issues and organizations, as an example.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Samoa: A group of islands in the southwest central Pacific, divided into AMERICAN SAMOA and the INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA (Western Samoa). First European contact was made in 1722 by Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman. In 1768 they were named Navigators Islands by Louis de Bougainville. The present name may derive from that of a local chieftain or from a local word meaning place of the moa, a now-extinct island bird. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1061 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p481)Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Tonga: An archipelago in Polynesia in the southwest Pacific Ocean, comprising about 150 islands. It is a kingdom whose capital is Nukualofa. It was discovered by the Dutch in 1616, visited by Tasman in 1643, and by Captain Cook in 1773 and 1777. The modern kingdom was established during the reign of King George Tupou I, 1845-93. It became a British protectorate in 1900 and gained independence in 1970. The name Tonga may be of local origin, meaning either island or holy. Its other name, Friendly Islands, was given by Captain Cook from the welcome given him by the natives. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1219 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p549)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.North CarolinaAlaskaInformation Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.United StatesHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).New York CityAdvisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Appalachian Region: A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Los AngelesSocial Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Intervention Studies: Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.South CarolinaCaliforniaData Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.MassachusettsChicagoHealth Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Asian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.TexasAttitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Inuits: Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Schools: Educational institutions.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
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