Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Foster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.Child, Abandoned: A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Child, Exceptional: A child whose needs, abilities, or other characteristics vary so much from the average in mental, physical, or social areas that a greater than usual level of services is needed to facilitate the child's maximum potential development.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.United StatesJuvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Housing, AnimalChild, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Animals, LaboratoryPoverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.