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Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Calgranulin B: A 13.2-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN A and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin B is expressed at high concentrations in GRANULOCYTES during early monocyte differentiation, and serum calgranulin B levels are elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as CYSTIC FIBROSIS.Calbindin 1: A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).EF Hand Motifs: Calcium-binding motifs composed of two helices (E and F) joined by a loop. Calcium is bound by the loop region. These motifs are found in many proteins that are regulated by calcium.Calgranulin A: A 10.8-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN B and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin A is found in many cell types including GRANULOCYTES; KERATINOCYTES; and myelomonocytes, and has been shown to act as a chemotactic substance for NEUTROPHILS. Because it is present in acute inflammation but absent in chronic inflammation, it is a useful biological marker for a number of pathological conditions.Secretagogins: Secretagogins are EF HAND MOTIF-containing calcium-binding proteins that are involved in early neuronal migration and neurogenesis. They are also present in many adult organs and in brain and endocrine neoplasms.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Annexin A6: Protein of the annexin family with a probable role in exocytotic and endocytotic membrane events.Terbium: Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.Neurocalcin: A neuronal calcium sensor protein that is expressed as several isoforms and can interact with ACTIN; TUBULIN; and CLATHRIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hippocalcin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that was initially found in the NEURONS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. It interacts with NEURONAL APOPTOSIS-INHIBITORY PROTEIN.Sulfur-Sulfur Bond Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of a sulfur-sulfur bond. EC 5.3.4.Calreticulin: A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.Recoverin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that is found in ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and CONE PHOTORECEPTORS. It interacts with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a Ca2+ dependent manner and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Annexins: Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Neuronal Calcium-Sensor Proteins: A family of intracellular calcium-sensing proteins found predominately in NEURONS and PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They contain EF HAND MOTIFS and undergo conformational changes upon calcium-binding. Neuronal calcium-sensor proteins interact with other regulatory proteins to mediate physiological responses to a change in intracellular calcium concentration.Saccharopolyspora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Calsequestrin: Acidic protein found in SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM that binds calcium to the extent of 700-900 nmoles/mg. It plays the role of sequestering calcium transported to the interior of the intracellular vesicle.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Osteonectin: Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Troponin C: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Kv Channel-Interacting Proteins: A family of neuronal calcium-sensor proteins that interact with and regulate potassium channels, type A.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Egg Shell: A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Pinctada: A genus of pearl oysters in the family Pteriidae, class BIVALVIA. Both cultured and natural pearls are obtained from species in the genus. They are distinct from the distantly related, edible true oysters of the family OSTREIDAE.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Calnexin: A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Pneumothorax, Artificial: Injection of air or a more slowly absorbed gas such as nitrogen, into the PLEURAL CAVITY to collapse the lung.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Rats, Inbred BUFMicrofilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Seed Storage Proteins: One or more types of plant seed proteins providing the large amounts of AMINO ACIDS utilized in GERMINATION and SEEDLING growth. As seeds are the major food source from AGRICULTURAL CROPS, seed storage proteins are a major source of DIETARY PROTEINS.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Phleum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Phl p 4 allergen.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Apium graveolens: A plant species of the family APIACEAE. The stalks are a food source.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Eye ProteinsImmunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Echidna: An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Graft vs Tumor Effect: Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb: Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is an integrin alpha subunit that heterodimerizes with INTEGRIN BETA3 to form PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX. It is synthesized as a single polypeptide chain which is then postranslationally cleaved and processed into two disulfide-linked subunits of approximately 18 and 110 kDa in size.Canavalia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Thrombasthenia: A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Mice, Inbred C57BL