Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Colitis, Collagenous: A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show larger-than-normal band of subepithelial COLLAGEN.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Croup: Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.Proctocolitis: Inflammation of the RECTUM and the distal portion of the COLON.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Adrenal Cortex HormonesDrug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Ascaris suum: A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Racepinephrine: A racemic mixture of d-epinephrine and l-epinephrine.Leukotriene E4: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Colitis, Microscopic: A condition characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. This syndrome was first described in 1980 by Read and associates. Subtypes include COLLAGENOUS COLITIS and LYMPHOCYTIC COLITIS. Both have similar clinical symptoms and are distinguishable only by histology.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Procaterol: A long-acting beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist.Multiple Pulmonary Nodules: A number of small lung lesions characterized by small round masses of 2- to 3-mm in diameter. They are usually detected by chest CT scans (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY). Such nodules can be associated with metastases of malignancies inside or outside the lung, benign granulomas, or other lesions.
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