Brachypodium: A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Prolamins: A group of seed storage proteins restricted to the POACEAE family. They are rich in GLUTAMINE and PROLINE.Endosperm: Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Tryptophan Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Myrsinaceae: A plant family of the order Primulales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Cold-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive cold. In humans, a fall in skin temperature triggers gasping, hypertension, and hyperventilation.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.