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Blood Preservation: The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Fertility Preservation: A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Cold Ischemia: The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.