Aniline CompoundsAniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Aniline Mustard: Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.ToluidinesAminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Aminopyrine N-DemethylaseBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Harmine: Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.Aminopyrine: A pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of AGRANULOCYTOSIS. A breath test with 13C-labeled aminopyrine has been used as a non-invasive measure of CYTOCHROME P-450 metabolic activity in LIVER FUNCTION TESTS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Benzphetamine: A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Delftia: A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family COMAMONADACEAE.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Methemoglobinemia: The presence of methemoglobin in the blood, resulting in cyanosis. A small amount of methemoglobin is present in the blood normally, but injury or toxic agents convert a larger proportion of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which does not function reversibly as an oxygen carrier. Methemoglobinemia may be due to a defect in the enzyme NADH methemoglobin reductase (an autosomal recessive trait) or to an abnormality in hemoglobin M (an autosomal dominant trait). (Dorland, 27th ed)Azo CompoundsHexobarbital: A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Delftia acidovorans: A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Proadifen: An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.Propanil: A chlorinated anilide that is used as an herbicide.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Ethylmorphine: A narcotic analgesic and antitussive. It is metabolized in the liver by ETHYLMORPHINE-N-DEMETHYLASE and used as an indicator of liver function.IminesPalladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Oxidative Coupling: The reaction of two molecular entities via oxidation usually catalyzed by a transition metal compound and involving dioxygen as the oxidant.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.o-Aminoazotoluene: An azo dye with carcinogenic properties.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Quinacrine Mustard: Nitrogen mustard analog of quinacrine used primarily as a stain in the studies of chromosomes and chromatin. Fluoresces by reaction with nucleic acids in chromosomes.
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