Hematuria: an unusual presentation for mucocele of the appendix. Case report and review of the literature.
Mucocele of the appendix is a nonspecific term that is used to describe an appendix abnormally distended with mucus. This may be the result of either neoplastic or non-neopleastic causes and may present like most appendiceal pathology with either mild abdominal pain or life-threatening peritonitis. Urologic manifestations of mucocele of the appendix have rarely been reported. Laparoscopy can be used as a diagnostic tool in equivocal cases. Conversion to laparotomy may be indicated if there is a special concern for the ability to remove the appendix intact or if more extensive resection is warranted, as in malignancy. We here report our experience with a woman presenting with hematuria whose ultimate diagnosis was mucocele of the appendix, and we review the appropriate literature. This case highlights the mucocele as a consideration in the differential diagnosis of appendiceal pathology and serves to remind the surgeon of the importance for careful intact removal of the diseased appendix. (+info)
The value of intra-operative cystoscopy at the time of laparoscopic hysterectomy.
The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of routine intra-operative cystoscopy in documenting ureteral injury during total laparoscopic hysterectomy with vault suspension and to document the incidence of this complication in a large series. The charts of 118 patients who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy with vault suspension from January 1992 to January 1998 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients underwent intra-operative cystoscopic evaluation to verify ureteral permeability and bladder integrity. Intra-operative ureteral obstruction occurred in four patients (3.4%). All complications were immediately fixed and there were no postoperative ureteral problems. No late ureteral complications were observed. Intra-operative cystoscopy allows for early recognition and treatment of obstructive ureteral injuries and may reduce the rate of late postoperative complications during advanced laparoscopic procedures. (+info)
Intrathecal bupivacaine in humans: influence of volume and baricity of solutions.
BACKGROUND: The effects of volume and baricity of spinal bupivacaine on block onset, height, duration, and hemodynamics were studied. METHODS: Ninety patients undergoing endoscopic urologic procedures were randomized to receive 10 mg of intrathecal bupivacaine at L2-L3 level in sitting position. In the operating room, commercial products were diluted as needed with NaCl 0.9% to obtain isobaric solutions (density, 1.005-1.008) or with NaC 10.9% and glucose 30% to obtain hyperbaric solutions (density, 1.031-1.037) of 2, 5, or 10 ml (six groups of 15 patients each). Three minutes after spinal injection the patients were placed in lithotomy position. Sensory blockade was assessed using pinprick and cold sensation tests, and motor blockade was assessed using a four-point scale. RESULTS: Onset times to maximal cephalad spread of spinal blockade were similar with isobaric and hyperbaric solutions. A greater maximal cephalad spread of anesthesia was obtained with diluted isobaric bupivacaine but was not associated with more hypotension. Volume had no effect on cephalad extent of anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine. Times for regression of anesthesia to L2 and offset of motor block were longer with isobaric than with hyperbaric solutions of bupivacaine. The intensity of motor blockade was decreased with diluted hyperbaric bupivacaine. No patient reported back pain. CONCLUSION: In this study, volume had no significant influence on either cephalad spread or duration of sensory blockade for either isobaric or hyperbaric bupivacaine. Time for offset of anesthesia was shorter with hyperbaric bupivacaine compared with isobaric solutions. (+info)
Early fetal megacystis between 11 and 15 weeks of gestation.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic criteria of early fetal megacystis. DESIGN: A prospective, transvaginal ultrasound, cross-sectional study at 11-15 weeks of gestation at a tertiary referral fetal medicine unit. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sixteen pregnancies out of a total of 5240 were identified with early fetal megacystis. Fetal biometry, morphology, amniotic fluid, bladder size and volume were also evaluated. The karyotype was available in 15 cases. Vesicocentesis was performed in six fetuses and three had concomitant cystoscopies. RESULTS: In six fetuses, the megacystis was isolated. In the remaining ten, we detected associated hygroma (n = 5), nuchal translucency (n = 3), omphalocele (n = 1), mild pyelectasis (n = 1) and bilateral talipes (n = 1). In three cases the fetuses demonstrated renal hyperechogenicity with cysts, and in two cases oligohydramnios was found; four cases (25%) had chromosomal abnormalities; 47, XY + 13 (two cases), 47, XY + 18 and 47, XY + 21. Only one fetus from this study survived. In the remaining 13 cases, termination was proposed after counselling of the patients on the poor prognosis. The mean gestational age at termination was 15.5 +/- 2.4 weeks (range 12-20). Three fetal transabdominal cystoscopies did not allow us to view the valves; one urethral atresia was suspected, and confirmed postnatally. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high rate of associated malformations, especially intestinal malformations. The systematic evaluation of the intestinal enzymes in the amniotic fluid and urine samples might be an important aid in the diagnosis of multiple malformations, such as cloacal dysgenesis. (+info)
Interstitial cystitis: a retrospective analysis of treatment with pentosan polysulfate and follow-up patient survey.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) in relieving symptoms of interstitial cystitis, the authors retrospectively reviewed charts of 260 patients in whom interstitial cystitis had been diagnosed. Subsequently, they conducted a follow-up phone interview or mail survey of those patients who were treated with PPS to investigate changes in the patients' symptoms, adverse effects, and change in quality of life. The control group consisted of patients whose interstitial cystitis had been diagnosed at cystoscopy and had a duration of at least 1 year and who had taken at least one or more oral medications for their symptoms. The average length of treatment was 9.3 months among the 27 subjects on PPS therapy. The mean length of time that they had diagnosed interstitial cystitis was 35.63 months and 48.78 months for the PPS-treated and control groups, respectively, with no statistically significant difference. Changes in frequency, urgency, and pain were greater in the treatment group and statistically significant (P = .11, P = .49, and P = .004, respectively). No change occurred in the rate of nocturia in the PPS-treated group compared with that in the control group. Symptoms of both groups improved over time, but improvement was statistically significantly greater in the treatment group (P = .001) over the treatment interval. The most common side effect attributable to PPS was diarrhea in 15% of subjects. Pentosan proved to be an efficacious option for reducing the debilitating symptoms of interstitial cystitis. (+info)
Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children with glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine dermal collagen. Short-term results.
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic treatment using glutaraldehyde cross-linked (GAX) collagen was conducted on 4 children with bilateral primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)..... a 1-year-old boy and three 5- to 8-year-old girls $B!D (Ball having a history of repeated hospitalization for fever due to acute pyelonephritis, visiting as pediatric outpatients regularly and receiving antibiotics continuously. By international VUR classification, 4 ureters were grade 3, 2 grade 4, and 2 grade 5. METHODS: After nonallergy to GAX collagen was confirmed intracutaneously, a needle was used through a 9.5 Fr cystoscope channel to puncture bladder mucosa 4 to 5 mm from the affected ureteral orifice at 6 o'clock under general anesthesia; 1.1 to 1.9 ml of GAX collagen was injected immediately below affected orifices. RESULTS: Three months after surgery, voiding cystourethrography showed reflux had disappeared in 6 ureters, for a short-term success rate of 75%. VUR in the Remaining 2 ureters improved from grade 3 to 1 and from grade 5 to 4. No postoperative urinary tract infection occurred and antibiotics were stopped. CONCLUSION: Since GAX collagen is less viscous than Teflon paste, it is easily injected into submucosa, does not form granuloma or migrate to other organs, and is noncarcinogenic. Endoscopic VUR treatment using GAX collagen is indicated when less invasion and shorter hospitalization are considered, although it requires general anesthesia, which itself involves some risk. (+info)
Diseases causing end-stage renal failure in New South Wales.
The nature of the original renal disease was determined in 403 consecutive cases of end-stage renal failure, in 317 of which the clinical diagnosis was corroborated by histological examination of the kidney. Five diseases accounted for 20 or more cases--glomerulonephritis (31% of the total), analgesic nephropathy (29%), primary vesicoureteral reflux (8%), essential hypertension (6%), and polycystic kidneys (5%). In only four cases did renal failure result from chronic pyelonephritis without a demonstrable primary cause. Greater use of micturating cystography and cystoscopy and routine urine testing for salicylate are advocated for earlier diagnosis of the major causes of "pyelonephritis". The incidence of end-stage renal failure in people aged 15-55 in New South Wales was estimated to be at least 34 new cases per million of total population each year. (+info)
Malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases.
AIM: To report the clinical and histological features and outcome of primary and secondary malignant lymphomas of the urinary bladder. METHODS: Eleven cases of malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder were obtained from the registry of cases at St Bartholomews and the Royal London Hospitals. The lymphomas were classified on the basis of their morphology and immunophenotype, and the clinical records were reviewed. RESULTS: There were six primary lymphomas: three extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and three diffuse large B cell lymphomas. Of the five secondary cases, four were diffuse large B cell lymphomas, one secondary to a systemic follicular follicle centre lymphoma, and one nodular sclerosis Hodgkins disease. Four patients with secondary lymphoma for whom follow up was available had died of disease within 13 months of diagnosis. Primary lymphomas followed a more indolent course. In one case, there was evidence of transformation from low grade MALT-type to diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The most common presenting symptom was haematuria. Cystoscopic appearances were of solid, sometimes necrotic tumours resembling transitional cell carcinoma, and in one case the tumours were multiple. These cases represented 0.2% of all bladder neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma and MALT-type lymphoma are the most common primary malignant lymphomas of the bladder. Lymphoepithelial lesions in MALT-type lymphoma involve transitional epithelium, and their presence in high grade lymphoma suggests a primary origin owing to transformation of low grade MALT-type lymphoma. Primary and secondary diffuse large B cell lymphomas of the bladder are histologically similar, but the prognosis of the former is favourable. (+info)