Gastric emptying and intestinal transit of pancreatic enzyme supplements in cystic fibrosis.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate gastric emptying and intestinal transit of pelleted pancreatin in relation to food boluses. METHODS: Dual isotope scintigraphy combined with breath hydrogen sampling was used to track the concurrent gastric emptying and intestinal transit of 111indium labelled microspheres and a 99mtechnetium labelled tin colloid test meal. Twelve pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis patients aged 5 to 38 years performed the study. RESULTS: 50% gastric emptying times showed patient to patient variation. The mean discrepancy in 50% gastric emptying times between the two labels was > 67 minutes. Mean small bowel transit time for the food bolus was prolonged at 3.6 minutes. A significant correlation was seen between weight standard deviation score and 50% emptying time for pancreatin (r = +0.73). CONCLUSION: Gastric mixing of food and pancreatin may be limited by rapid emptying of microspheres. Patients with high dosage requirements could benefit from changing the pattern of their pancreatin supplementation. (+info)
High RBC labeling efficiency by controlling pretinning with the modified in vivo/in vitro labeling method.
OBJECTIVE: The image quality for gastrointestinal bleeding studies depends on the efficiency of red blood cell labeling. The in vitro technique has been used widely because of its high labeling efficiency. New data for the modified in vivo/in vitro method are lacking. This study reports on the high labeling efficiency that can be obtained with the modified in vivo/in vitro method and the pitfalls to avoid. METHODS: A consecutive series of 91 labeling studies was analyzed. Different amounts of tin, red blood cell concentrations, and infusions of interfering substances also were studied. RESULTS: A mean efficiency of red blood cell labeling of 97% (80%-99%) was obtained. Only 3 cases showed unacceptable results. Suboptimal results were obtained with amounts of tin below 10 microg SnCl2/kg body weight, a reduced hematocrit, and blood transfusion or infusion of HES solution during pretinning. CONCLUSION: The modified in vivo/in vitro red blood cell labeling technique is performed easily, is useful and is comparable to the gold standard in vitro method, provided that the pretinning period is controlled carefully. (+info)
Human vascular smooth muscle cells but not endothelial cells express prostaglandin E synthase.
In a previous work, we postulated that endothelial cells possess only the following 2 enzymes involved in prostanoid synthesis: cyclooxygenase and prostacyclin synthase. The present work focused on investigating the expression of prostaglandin (PG) E synthase (PGES) in vascular cells. After incubation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with [(14)C]arachidonic acid, the profile of prostanoid synthesis was assessed by HPLC. Untransformed PGH(2) released by the cells was evaluated as the difference in the formation of PGF(2alpha) in the incubations performed in the presence and in the absence of SnCl(2). Resting SMCs and SMCs stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin (IL)-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha formed PGE(2) and PGI(2) (evaluated as 6-oxo-PGF(1alpha)), and in the presence of SnCl(2) only a small amount of PGE(2) was deviated toward PGF(2alpha). In contrast, resting and stimulated HUVECs produced PGI(2), PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), and PGD(2), and SnCl(2) completely diverted PGE(2) and PGD(2) toward PGF(2alpha). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis shows that mRNA encoding for PGES was not present in HUVECs and in endothelial cells from saphenous vein. Nevertheless, PGES was expressed in SMCs and induced by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, and by PMA and LPS, although to a lesser extent. Whereas SMC stimulation led to an increase in the synthesis of PGE(2) and PGI(2) but not of untransformed PGH(2), stimulation of endothelial cells resulted in an enhanced release of the vasoconstricting prostanoid PGH(2). (+info)
Tissue factor, which is expressed in vascular lesions, increases thrombin production, blood coagulation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. We demonstrate that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induces surface tissue factor pathway activity (ie, activity of the tissue factor:factor VIIa complex) on human and rat smooth muscle cells. Tissue factor messenger RNA (mRNA) was induced by oxidized LDL or native LDL; however, native LDL did not markedly increase tissue factor activity. We hypothesized that oxidized LDL mediated the activation of the tissue factor pathway via an oxidant-dependent mechanism, because antioxidants blocked the enhanced tissue factor pathway activity by oxidized LDL, but not the increased mRNA or protein induction. We separated total lipid extracts of oxidized LDL using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This yielded 2 major peaks that induced tissue factor activity. Of the known oxysterols contained in the first peak, 7alpha- or 7beta-hydroxy or 7-ketocholesterol had no effect on tissue factor pathway activity; however, 7beta-hydroperoxycholesterol increased tissue factor pathway activity without induction of tissue factor mRNA. Tertiary butyl hydroperoxide also increased tissue factor pathway activity, suggesting that lipid hydroperoxides, some of which exist in atherosclerotic lesions, activate the tissue factor pathway. We speculate that thrombin production could be elevated via a mechanism involving peroxidation of cellular lipids, contributing to arterial thrombosis after plaque rupture. Our data suggest a mechanism by which antioxidants may offer a clinical benefit in acute coronary syndrome and restenosis. (+info)
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid-mediated renal vasodilation to arachidonic acid is enhanced in SHR.
We tested the hypothesis that cyclooxygenase-independent vasodilation produced by arachidonic acid (AA) is mediated by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and is blunted in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). At normal perfusion pressure (PP; 70 to 90 mm Hg), AA constricted the renal vasculature in both SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats, an effect abolished by cyclooxygenase inhibition, and converted to vasodilation when PP was raised to approximately 200 mm Hg. Unexpectedly, renal vasodilation elicited by AA was greater in the SHR at high PP; for example, 2.5, 5, and 10 microg of AA produced PP declines of 54+/-9, 92+/-10, and 112+/-5 mm Hg, respectively, in SHR compared with 26+/-3, 45+/-5, and 77+/-6 mm Hg in Wistar-Kyoto rats (P:<0.01). However, the renal vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (0.1 microg) and sodium nitroprusside (1 microg) did not differ between strains, indicating that vascular responsiveness to AA was independent of intrinsic changes in vascular smooth muscle. Hyperresponsiveness of the renal vasculature to AA may be unique for the SHR, because it did not occur in Sprague-Dawley rats with angiotensin II-induced hypertension. 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA; 4 micromol/L), an inhibitor of all AA pathways, attenuated the vasodilator responses to AA, as did treatment with stannous chloride, which depletes cytochrome P450 enzymes, suggesting that a cytochrome P450 AA metabolite mediated the renal vasodilation. N:-Methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-en-amide (DDMS; 2 micromol/L), a selective omega-hydroxylase inhibitor, did not affect AA-induced vasodilation, whereas selective inhibition of epoxygenases with either miconazole (0.3 micromol/L) or N:-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanamide (MS-PPOH; 12 micromol/L) did, indicating that one or more EETs were involved in the renal vasodilator action of AA at high PP. This conclusion was supported by the demonstration that AA greatly enhanced the renal efflux of EETs at high PP but not at basal PP. (+info)
Heme oxygenase isoform-specific expression and distribution in the rat kidney.
BACKGROUND: The heme oxygenase (HO) genes, HO-1 and HO-2, are the limiting steps in heme degradation and in the regulation of renal heme-dependent enzymes. Previously we reported that selective overexpression of renal HO-1 resulted in a decrease of microsomal heme and the cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolite, 20 HETE, a vasoconstrictor. The present study was undertaken to explore the relative expression and contribution of each of the HO isoforms to HO activity in the rat kidney. METHODS AND RESULTS. Renal HO activity increased above control levels after an injection of the inducers of HO activity, heme or SnCl2. Stannous Mesoporphyrin (SnMP), a nonselective inhibitor of HO, when used alone or in combination with heme or SnCl2, decreased HO activity. Heme alone and combined with SnCl2 decreased the levels of heme content by 13 and 35%, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that both SnCl2 and heme readily induced HO-1 protein, whereas HO-2 was constitutively expressed. Immunohistochemistry showed the distribution of the HO-1 isoform primarily in proximal convoluted tubules. Western blot analysis exhibited relatively higher levels of HO-1 in isolated proximal tubules and relatively higher HO-2 levels in the thick ascending limbs of the loop of Henle and preglomerular arterioles. In vivo administration of HO-1 and HO-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides further confirmed that HO-2, but not HO-1, contributed to the basal HO activity; however, following induction of HO with heme, antisense to HO-1, but not to HO-2, inhibited the induced levels of HO activity. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that HO-2 is constitutively expressed in the rat kidney mainly within tubular and arteriolar structures, and its activity may modulate physiological function under basal conditions. On the other hand, the basal levels of expression of HO-1 in the rat kidney are relatively low, and its contribution to HO activity and the regulation of hemoproteins such as cytochrome P450 become apparent only under pathophysiological conditions causing HO induction. (+info)
Effects of heat shock, stannous chloride, and gallium nitrate on the rat inflammatory response.
Heat and a variety of other stressors cause mammalian cells and tissues to acquire cytoprotection. This transient state of altered cellular physiology is nonproliferative and antiapoptotic. In this study, male Wistar rats were stress conditioned with either stannous chloride or gallium nitrate, which have immunosuppressive effects in vivo and in vitro, or heat shock, the most intensively studied inducer of cytoprotection. The early stages of inflammation in response to topical suffusion of mesentery tissue with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) were monitored using intravital microscopy. Microvascular hemodynamics (venular diameter, red blood cell velocity [Vrbc], white blood cell [WBC] flux, and leukocyte-endothelial adhesion [LEA]) were used as indicators of inflammation, and tissue levels of inducible Hsp70, determined using immunoblot assays, provided a marker of cytoprotection. None of the experimental treatments blocked decreases in WBC flux during FMLP suffusion, an indicator of increased low-affinity interactions between leukocytes and vascular endothelium known as rolling adhesion. During FMLP suffusion LEA, an indicator of firm attachment between leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells increased in placebo and gallium nitrate-treated animals but not in heat- and stannous chloride-treated animals, an anti-inflammatory effect. Hsp70 was not detected in aortic tissue from placebo and gallium nitrate-treated animals, indicating that Hsp70-dependent cytoprotection was not present. In contrast, Hsp70 was detected in aortic tissues from heat- and stannous chloride-treated animals, indicating that these tissues were in a cytoprotected state that was also an anti-inflammatory state. (+info)
Regulation of cyclooxygenase- and cytochrome p450-derived eicosanoids by heme oxygenase in the rat kidney.
Heme oxygenase enzymes (HO-1 and HO-2) catalyze the conversion of heme to biliverdin, free iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). Heme and products derived from its metabolism potentially influence renal function and blood pressure by affecting the expression and/or activity of hemeproteins, including cytochrome P450 (CYP4A) monooxygenases and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). We studied HO isoform expression and examined the effect of HO-1 induction by SnCl(2) on CYP4A and COX expression and activity in the rat kidney. HO-1 protein levels in kidney tissues from untreated rats were barely detectable, whereas HO-2 protein was expressed in all kidney structures examined and its levels were higher in the outer medulla followed by the inner medulla/papilla and cortex. HO-2 expression along the nephron followed its regional distribution, ie, the highest levels were detected in the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) and inner medullary collecting ducts followed by proximal tubules. SnCl(2) Treatment did not significantly affect HO-2 expression or distribution; however, it markedly increased HO-1 protein in the inner and outer medulla, specifically, in the inner medullary collecting ducts and mTAL. CYP4A expression and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) synthesis were the highest in the outer medulla followed by the cortex and inner medulla/papilla. SnCl(2) treatment reduced cortical and inner medullary CYP4A protein levels by 60% and 50% and inhibited 20-HETE synthesis by 90% and 60%, respectively. Despite a significant induction of HO-1 protein in the outer medulla, CYP4A expression and 20-HETE synthesis were hardly affected. SnCl(2) treatment did not affect COX-1 expression but markedly reduced cortical and medullary COX-2 protein levels. We conclude that HO isoform expression is segmented within the kidney and along the nephron and that treatment with an HO-1 inducer suppressed the levels of CYP4A and COX-2 proteins in a tissue-specific manner with concomitant effects on their activity. Such interactions may play an important role in the regulation of renal function. (+info)