On the validity of blood flow measurement using colored microspheres.
The aim of this study was 1) to investigate the validity of repeated estimations of blood flow using colored microspheres (CMS) and 2) to develop and validate a method that permits four consecutive estimations in the same animal using nonradiolabeled microspheres (NRMS). Several mixtures of different types of microspheres were injected in dogs, with each mixture containing the radiolabeled microspheres (RMS; labeled with 113Sn) with either three CMS, four CMS, or three CMS and one type of fluorescent (crimson labeled) microsphere (FMS). The blood flows estimated with the use of any of the injected microspheres were compared with those measured using the RMS as the "gold standard." The results were analyzed by 1) regression analysis, 2) variance analysis (ANOVA I), and 3) estimation of the limits of agreement between RMS and NRMS flow rates. The results indicate that simultaneous estimations of blood flow obtained with the use of more than three CMS lack accuracy and reliability. A combination of three types of CMS with crimson-labeled FMS, however, offers the possibility to estimate consecutively four different flow rates in the same animal in an accurate way and with relatively high precision. (+info)
Marrow-sparing effects of 117mSn(4+)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for radionuclide therapy of bone cancer.
Several bone-seeking radionuclides (32P, 89Sr, 186Re, and 153Sm) have been used to treat bone pain. The limiting factor in this modality is marrow toxicity. Our hypothesis is that marrow toxicity can be reduced while maintaining therapeutic efficacy using radionuclides that emit short-range beta particles or conversion electrons (CEs). A recent study on 47 patients using the short-range CE emitter 117mSn(4+)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (117mSn(4+)DTPA) supports this hypothesis. The hypothesis is now tested using 117mSn(4+)DTPA in a mouse femur model. METHODS: The survival of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells (GM-CFCs) in femoral marrow is used as a biologic dosimeter for bone marrow. The dosimeter is calibrated by irradiating mice with exponentially decreasing dose rates of 137Cs gamma-rays with a dose-rate decrease half-time, Td, equal to the effective clearance half-time of 117mSn(4+)DTPA from the femur (222 h). When Td = 222 h, the mean absorbed dose required to achieve a survival fraction of 37% is 151 cGy. After calibration, 117mSn(4+)DTPA is administered and GM-CFC survival is determined as a function of injected activity. These data are used to experimentally determine the mean absorbed dose to the femoral marrow per unit injected activity. The kinetics of radioactivity in the marrow, muscle, and femoral bone are also determined. Finally, a theoretic dosimetry model of the mouse femur is used, and the absorbed doses to the femoral marrow and bone are calculated. RESULTS: The experimental mean absorbed dose to the femoral marrow per unit injected activity of 117mSn(4+)DTPA is 0.043 cGy/kBq. The theoretic mean absorbed dose to the femoral bone per unit injected activity is 1.07 cGy/kBq. If these data are compared with those obtained previously for 32P-orthophosphate, the radiochemical 117mSn(4+)DTPA yields up to an 8-fold therapeutic advantage over the energetic beta emitter 32P. CONCLUSION: The CE emitter 117mSn offers a large dosimetric advantage over energetic beta-particle emitters for alleviating bone pain, and possibly for other therapeutic applications, while minimizing marrow toxicity. (+info)
The PLACORHEN study: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized radionuclide study with (186)Re-etidronate in hormone-resistant prostate cancer patients with painful bone metastases. Placebo Controlled Rhenium Study.
(186)Re-1,1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (etidronate) can be used for the palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain. A randomized, placebo-controlled study using (186)Re-etidronate was conducted on end-stage prostate cancer patients with metastatic bone pain. METHODS: Pain relief was assessed using an electronic diary containing questions reflecting the multidimensional character of chronic pain. The diary was marked twice daily for a maximum of 14 wk (2 wk before and 12 wk after the injection). Pain response was determined using a specific decision rule in which pain intensity, medication index, and daily activities were the core determinants. A positive response day was defined as a day on which pain intensity was reduced > or = 25% compared with baseline values, while medication index and daily activities were at least constant, or on which pain intensity was reduced < 25% and medication index or daily activities improved > or = 25%, without worsening of the remaining factor. The total response (%) was defined as the number of positive response days divided by the number of days of follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 111 included patients, 79 were evaluable (43 (186)Re-etidronate, 36 placebo). Thirty-two patients were excluded from the analysis because of incomplete datasets. The total response of the patients treated with (186)Re-etidronate varied from 0% to 96% (mean, 27%, or 23/84 d). In the placebo group, the total response varied from 0% to 80% (mean, 13%, or 11/84 d; Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). The number of patients who requested radiotherapy was higher in the placebo group (67%) than in the (186)Re-etidronate group (44%) (relative risk, 1.51; Fisher's exact test, P = 0.069). CONCLUSION: This randomized controlled trial confirmed that, compared with placebo, (186)Re-etidronate resulted in a significantly longer pain response in the treatment of bone pain from metastasized prostate cancer. (+info)
The role of the tibial nutrient artery. Microsphere estimation of blood flow in the osteotomised canine tibia.
There has been a long-standing debate as to whether medullary or periosteal flow is the dominant vascular supply during the healing of diaphyseal fractures. We used radioactive microspheres to quantify blood flow to the canine tibia two weeks after an osteotomy. There was a significant contribution from the periosteum to the blood supply of healing cortical bone after nutrient artery ligation, with a reversal of flow from a centrifugal to a centripetal direction. Our study has confirmed the qualitative observations of Trueta (1974) regarding the significant recruitment of vessels from surrounding soft tissue during fracture healing. We have not studied the later stages of healing. (+info)
Treatment of metastatic bone pain with tin-117m Stannic diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid: a phase I/II clinical study.
The physical characteristics of Sn-117m combined with the biodistribution of the compound tin-117m (Stannic, 4+) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Sn-117m DTPA) suggest that it should be an excellent agent for the palliation of pain from bony metastases. Prior work has established the dosimetry and the safety for the material in human beings. The presence of low-energy conversion electrons should result in the relative sparing of the bone marrow while delivering a high radiation dose to sites of bony metastatic disease. Forty-seven patients with painful bone metastases from various malignancies were treated with Sn-117m DTPA. The patients were assigned to five different dose levels ranging from 2.64 to 10.58 MBq (71-286 microCi) per kg of body weight. Follow-up included review of pain diaries, performance scores, analgesic requirements, blood chemistries, and hematological assessment. Three patients received a second treatment. There was an overall response rate for relief of pain of 75% (range, 60-83%) in the 40 treatments that could be evaluated. No correlation was apparent in this limited series between response rate and the five dose levels used. The relief was complete in 12 patients (30%). The time to onset of pain relief was 19 +/- 15 days with doses < or = 5.29 MBq/kg and 5 +/- 3 days with doses > or = 6.61 MBq/kg. Myelotoxicity was minimal, with only one patient having a marginal grade 3 WBC toxicity. On the basis of our data, Sn-117m DTPA should be an effective and safe radiopharmaceutical for palliation of painful bony metastases. A large-scale trial is warranted to evaluate it in comparison to other similar agents. (+info)