Pharmacokinetics of beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluorocytidine in rhesus monkeys.
beta-L-2',3'-Dideoxy-5-fluorocytidine (beta-L-FddC), a novel cytidine analog with an unnatural beta-L sugar configuration, has been demonstrated by our group and others to exhibit highly selective in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and hepatitis B virus. This encouraging in vitro antiviral activity prompted us to assess its pharmacokinetics in rhesus monkeys. Three monkeys were administered an intravenous dose of [3H] beta-L-FddC at 5 mg/kg of body weight. Following a 3-month washout period, an equivalent oral dose was administered. Plasma and urine samples were collected at various times for up to 24 h after dosing, and drug levels were quantitated by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained on the basis of a two-compartment open model with a first-order elimination from the central compartment. After intravenous administration, the mean peak concentration in plasma (Cmax) was 29.8 +/- 10.5 microM. Total clearance, steady-state volume of distribution, terminal-phase plasma half-life (t1/2 beta), and mean residence time were 0.7 +/- 0.1 liters/h/kg, 1.3 +/- 0.1 liters/kg, 1.8 +/- 0.2 h, and 1.9 +/- 0.2 h, respectively. Approximately 47% +/- 16% of the intravenously administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine as the unchanged drug with no apparent metabolites. beta-L-FddC exhibited a Cmax of 3.2 microM after oral administration, with a time to peak drug concentration of approximately 1.5 h and a t1/2 of 2.2 h. One monkey in the oral administration arm of the study had a significant delay in the absorption of the aqueous administered dose. The absolute bioavailability of orally administered beta-L-FddC ranged from 56 to 66%. (+info
Mechanistic studies show that (-)-FTC-TP is a better inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase than 3TC-TP.
Of all of the nucleoside inhibitors approved by the FDA for treatment of AIDS, (-)-beta-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC, lamivudine) is the only one with the unnatural (-)-beta-L configuration. The fluorinated derivative (-)-beta-2', 3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine [(-)-FTC] and its triphosphate form have also been reported to have excellent antiretroviral activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Preliminary results of clinical trials suggest that (-)-FTC is 6- to 10-fold more potent than 3TC. However, the molecular mechanism for the observed enhanced clinical potency of (-)-FTC to inhibit viral replication is not understood. The present mechanistic studies used a transient kinetic approach and were designed to compare the incorporation of 3TC-TP and (-)-FTC-TP into DNA by HIV-1 RT and illuminate key features that may play a role in the differential potency. Here we show that (-)-FTC-TP is incorporated 10-fold more efficiently than 3TC-TP during HIV-1 RT-catalyzed RNA-dependent DNA synthesis. The enhanced incorporation efficiency of (-)-FTC-TP may be a key mechanistic feature that, in part, is responsible for the enhanced potency of (-)-FTC observed in ongoing clinical trials. (+info
Metabolism, mitochondrial uptake and toxicity of 2', 3'-dideoxycytidine.
2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddCyd) is a prescription anti-retroviral drug that causes mitochondrial toxicity and peripheral neuropathy. ddCyd is actively phosphorylated by cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase and nucleoside (di)phosphate kinase to the 5'-triphosphate derivative. However, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (ddCDP-choline) was also found in human cells incubated with ddCyd. In this paper we show that ddCDP-choline is produced from dideoxyCTP (ddCTP) and phosphocholine by phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. dCTP and CTP appear to activate this synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Although ddCTP and ddCDP-choline can both enter the mitochondria, ddCDP-choline uptake is more efficient than ddCTP uptake. These data suggest that ddCDP- choline is the ddCyd metabolite that is probably responsible for mitochondrial toxicity. The uptake of ddCTP and ddCDP-choline by mitochondria is inhibited by 3.0 mM l-carnitine in the cell-free system investigated; when added to U937 cells grown in the presence of 0.25 microM ddCyd, 3.0 mM l-carnitine partially abrogated the mitochondrial toxicity of ddCyd. (+info
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with a lower level of CD4+ T cell apoptosis in HIV-infected patients.
HAART may increase CD4+ T cell counts despite a persistently detectable HIV load. The impact of HAART on apoptosis, which may play a role in the disease process in HIV-infected patients, has not been extensively studied. We performed a study to compare the level of spontaneous T cell apoptosis and anti-retroviral treatments in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients. Data were obtained from a computerized medical record. Quantification of apoptotic cells was by cytofluorometric technique. From November 1995 to December 1997 we studied T cell apoptosis in 112 HIV-infected patients. Forty patients were classified A, 36 B and 36 C. Thirty patients were naive and 82 received an anti-retroviral treatment, 49 including a protease inhibitor (PI). The median plasma viraemia determined in 63 patients was 3.6 (range 1.3-5.6) log10. The median apoptotic cell count was 22% (range 2-73%) and 12% (range 2-60%) for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively. We did not observe any correlation between the HIV viraemia and the level of apoptosis of T cell subsets. Patients with HAART showed a lower percentage of apoptotic CD4+ T cells only: 16% (range 2-61%) versus 25% (range 5-73%) for patients receiving two nucleoside analogues (P = 0.02). This effect was significant in stage A patients and remained observable during the whole course of HIV disease. In conclusion, HAART, without any relation to plasma viraemia, is able to reduce apoptosis of CD4+ T cells. (+info
Characterization of the antiviral effect of 2',3'-dideoxy-2', 3'-didehydro-beta-L-5-fluorocytidine in the duck hepatitis B virus infection model.
A novel L-nucleoside analog of deoxycytidine, 2',3'-dideoxy-2', 3'-didehydro-beta-L-5-fluorocytidine (beta-L-Fd4C), was recently shown to strongly inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in the 2.2.15 cell line. Therefore, its antiviral activity was evaluated in the duck HBV (DHBV) infection model. Using a cell-free system for the expression of the DHBV polymerase, beta-L-Fd4C-TP exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of dCTP incorporation into viral minus-strand DNA with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.2 microM which was lower than that of other tested deoxycytidine analogs, i.e. , lamivudine-TP, ddC-TP, and beta-L-FddC-TP. Further analysis showed that beta-L-Fd4C-TP is likely to be a competitive inhibitor of dCTP incorporation and to cause premature DNA chain termination. In primary duck hepatocyte cultures infected in vitro, beta-L-Fd4C administration exhibited a long-lasting inhibitory effect on viral DNA synthesis but could not clear viral covalently closed circular DNA (CCC DNA). Results of short-term antiviral treatment in experimentally infected ducklings showed that beta-L-Fd4C exhibited the most potent antiviral effect, followed by beta-L-FddC, lamivudine, and ddC. Longer administration of beta-L-Fd4C induced a sustained suppression of viremia (>95% of controls) and of viral DNA synthesis within the liver. However, the persistence of trace amounts of viral CCC DNA detected only by PCR was associated with a recurrence of viral replication after drug withdrawal. In parallel, beta-L-Fd4C treatment suppressed viral antigen expression within the liver and decreased intrahepatic inflammation and was not associated with any sign of toxicity. Our data, therefore, demonstrate that in the duck model of HBV infection, beta-L-Fd4C is a potent inhibitor of DHBV reverse transcriptase activity in vitro and suppresses viral replication in the liver in vivo. (+info
Site-specific incorporation of nucleoside analogs by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the template grip mutant P157S. Template interactions influence substrate recognition at the polymerase active site.
Studies of drug-resistant reverse transcriptases (RTs) reveal the roles of specific structural elements and amino acids in polymerase function. To characterize better the effects of RT/template interactions on dNTP substrate recognition, we examined the sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT containing a new mutation in a "template grip" residue (P157S) to the 5'-triphosphates of (-)-beta-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC), (-)-beta-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine (FTC), and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT). A primer extension assay was used to monitor quantitatively drug monophosphate incorporation opposite each of multiple target sites. Wild-type and P157S RTs had similar catalytic activities and processivities on heteropolymeric RNA and DNA templates. When averaged over multiple template sites, P157S RT was 2-7-fold resistant to the 5'-triphosphates of 3TC, FTC, and AZT. Each drug triphosphate inhibited polymerization more efficiently on the DNA template compared with an RNA template of identical sequence. Moreover, chain termination by 3TC and FTC was strongly influenced by template sequence context. Incorporation of FTC and 3TC monophosphate varied up to 10-fold opposite 7 different G residues in the DNA template, and the P157S mutation altered this site specificity. In summary, these data identify Pro(157) as an important residue affecting nucleoside analog resistance and suggest that interactions between RT and the template strand influence dNTP substrate recognition at the RT active site. Our findings are discussed within the context of the HIV-1 RT structure. (+info
A randomized, controlled, phase II trial comparing escalating doses of subcutaneous interleukin-2 plus antiretrovirals versus antiretrovirals alone in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >/=350/mm3.
A total of 73 patients with baseline CD4+ cell counts >/=350 cells/mm3 who were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) were randomized to receive subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2; n=36) in addition to ART or to continue ART alone (n=37). Subcutaneous IL-2 was delivered at 1 of 3 doses (1.5 million international units inverted question markMIU, 4.5 MIU, and 7.5 MIU per dose) by twice-daily injection for 5 consecutive days every 8 weeks. After 24 weeks, the time-weighted mean change from baseline CD4+ cell count was 210 cells/mm3 for recipients of subcutaneous IL-2, compared with 29 cells/mm3 for recipients of ART alone (P<.001). There were no significant differences between treatment groups for measures of plasma human immunodeficiency virus RNA (P=.851). Subcutaneous IL-2 delivered at doses of 4.5 MIU and 7.5 MIU resulted in significant increases in CD4+ cell count (P=.006 and P<.001, respectively), compared with that seen in control patients. These changes were not significant in the 1.5 MIU dose group compared with that in the control patients (P=.105). Side effects that occurred from subcutaneous IL-2 administration were generally low grade, of short duration, and readily managed in an outpatient environment. (+info
Early virological failure in naive human immunodeficiency virus patients receiving saquinavir (soft gel capsule)-stavudine-zalcitabine (MIKADO trial) is not associated with mutations conferring viral resistance.
The MIKADO trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of stavudine-zalcitabine-saquinavir (soft gel capsule) [d4T-ddC-SQV(SGC)] in 36 naive patients (-3.3 log(10) units at week 24 [W24]). Among the 29 patients remaining on d4T-ddC-SQV(SGC) until W24, 10 harbored a virological failure (viral load of >200 copies/ml at W24) (group 1). To determine the reasons for therapeutic failure, genotypic and phenotypic resistance test results and SQV concentrations in plasma were analyzed and compared to those in successfully treated patients (viral load of <200 copies/ml at W24) (group 2). Reverse transcriptase and protease genotypic analyses in group 1 revealed the acquisition of only one SQV-associated mutation (L90M) in only two patients. There was no significant increase in the 50 or 90% inhibitory concentration of SQV in patients with or without the L90M mutation. However, the fact that two patients developed an L90M mutation only 4 weeks after relapse points to the need for genotypic resistance testing in the context of an initial failure of the antiretroviral regimen. At W24, the median SQV concentration in group 1 (71 ng/ml) was significantly lower than in group 2 (475 ng/ml), and the plasma SQV concentration was correlated with the viral load at W24 (r = -0.5; P<0.05) and with the drop in viral load between day 0 and W24 (r = -0.5; P<0.01). These results and the fact that the plasma SQV concentrations in the two groups prior to relapse (W12) were not significantly different strongly suggest that the early failure of this combination is not due to viral resistance but to a lack of compliance, pharmacological variability, and drug interactions or a combination of these factors. (+info