Similarities and differences in 111In- and 90Y-labeled 1B4M-DTPA antiTac monoclonal antibody distribution.
Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) labeled with 90Y are being used for radioimmunotherapy. Because 90Y is a beta emitter, quantitative information from imaging is suboptimal. With the concept of a "matched pair" of isotopes, 111In is used as a surrogate markerfor90Y. We evaluated the differences in biodistribution between 111In- and 90Y-labeled murine antiTac MoAb directed against the IL-2Ralpha receptor. METHODS: The antiTac was conjugated to the 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-6-methyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA, also known as MX-DTPA). Nine patients with adult T-cell leukemia were treated. Patients received approximately 185 MBq (5 mCi) 111In-labeled antiTac for imaging and 185-555 MBq (5-15 mCi) 90Y-labeled antiTac for therapy. The immunoreactivity of 111In-labeled antiTac was 90%+/-6%, whereas for 90Y-labeled antiTac, it was 74%+/-12%. RESULTS: The differences in blood and plasma kinetics of the two isotopes were small. The area undemeath the blood radioactivity curve was 1.91 percentage+/-0.58 percentage injected dose (%ID) x h/mL for 111In and 1.86%+/-0.64 %ID x h/mL for 90Y. Urinary excretion of 90Y was significantly greater than that of 111In in the first 24 h (P = 0.001), but later, the excretion of 111In was significantly greater (P = 0.001 to P = 0.04). Core biopsies of bone marrow showed a mean of 0.0029+/-0.0012 %ID/g for 111In, whereas the 90Y concentration was 0.0049+/-0.0021 %ID/g. Analyses of activity bound to circulating cells showed concentrations of 500-30,000 molecules of antiTac per cell. When cell-bound activity was corrected for immunoreactive fraction, the ratio of 111In to 90Y in circulating cells was 1.11+/-0.17. Three biopsies of tumor-involved skin showed ratios of 111In to 90Y of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1. CONCLUSION: This study shows that differences typically ranging from 10% to 15% exist in the biodistribution between 111In- and 90Y-labeled antiTac. Thus, it appears that 111In can be used as a surrogate marker for 90Y when labeling antiTac with the 1 B4M chelate, although underestimates of the bone marrow radiation dose should be anticipated. (+info)
Distribution of yttrium 90 ferric hydroxide colloid and gold 198 colloid after injection into knee.
Thirteen knees were injected with yttrium 90(90Y) ferric hydroxide colloid, and 12 with gold 198(198Au) colloid for treatment of persistent synovitis. Retention in the knee and uptake in lymph nodes and liver were measured by a quantitative scanning technique. There was no significant difference in the retention in the knee of the two different colloids. A tendency towards higher lymph node uptake was observed with 198Au compared with 90y. The inflammatory activity of the knee at the time of treatment may have influenced the subsequent lymph node uptake of 198Au, but not that of the 90Y, nor the overall leakage of either from the knee. 90Yferric hydroxide colloid was retained in the treated knee at least as well as other colloids which have been used for this purpose. (+info)
Comparison of 111In-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide and 111In-DTPA-octreotide in the same patients: biodistribution, kinetics, organ and tumor uptake.
Scintigraphy with [111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid0-D-Phe1]-octreotide (DTPAOC) is used to demonstrate neuroendocrine and other somatostatin-receptor-positive tumors. Despite encouraging results, this 111In-labeled compound is not well suited for peptide-receptor-mediated radiotherapy of somatostatin-receptor-positive tumors. Another somatostatin analog, [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N'''-tetraacetic acid0, D-Phe1, Tyr3]-octreotide (DOTATOC), can be labeled with the beta-emitter 90Y in a stable manner. METHODS: We compared the distribution, kinetics and dosimetry of 111In-DTPAOC and 111In-DOTATOC in eight patients to predict the outcomes of these parameters in patients who will be treated with 90Y-DOTATOC. RESULTS: Serum radioactivity levels for the radiopharmaceuticals did not differ significantly 2-24 h after injection (P>0.05). Up to 2 h postinjection they were slightly, but significantly, lower after administration of 111In-DOTATOC (P < 0.01 at most time points). The percentage of peptide-bound radioactivity in serum did not differ after administration of either compound. Urinary excretion was significantly lower after administration of 111In-DOTATOC (P < 0.01). The visualization of known somatostatin-receptor-positive organs and tumors was clearer after administration of 111In-DOTATOC than after administration of 111In-DTPAOC. This was confirmed by significantly higher calculated uptakes in the pituitary gland and spleen. The uptake in the tumor sites did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), although in three of the four patients in whom tumor uptake could be calculated, it was higher after administration of 111In-DOTATOC. CONCLUSION: The distribution and excretion pattern of 111In-DOTATOC resembles that of 111In-DTPAOC, and the uptake in somatostatin-receptor-positive organs and most tumors is higher for 111In-DOTATOC. If 90Y-DOTATOC shows an uptake pattern similar to 111In-DOTATOC, it is a promising radiopharmaceutical for peptide-receptor-mediated radiotherapy in patients with somatostatin-receptor-positive tumors. (+info)
High-linear energy transfer (LET) alpha versus low-LET beta emitters in radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors: therapeutic efficacy and dose-limiting toxicity of 213Bi- versus 90Y-labeled CO17-1A Fab' fragments in a human colonic cancer model.
Recent studies suggest that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation may have therapeutic advantages over conventional low-LET (e.g., beta-) emissions. Furthermore, fragments may be more effective in controlling tumor growth than complete IgG. However, to the best of our knowledge, no investigators have attempted a direct comparison of the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a systemic targeted therapeutic strategy, using high-LET alpha versus low-LET beta emitters in vivo. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the toxicity and antitumor efficacy of RIT with the alpha emitter 213Bi/213Po, as compared to the beta emitter 90Y, linked to a monovalent Fab' fragment in a human colonic cancer xenograft model in nude mice. Biodistribution studies of 213Bi- or 88Y-labeled benzyl-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate-conjugated Fab' fragments of the murine monoclonal antibody CO17-1A were performed in nude mice bearing s.c. human colon cancer xenografts. 213Bi was readily obtained from an "in-house" 225Ac/213Bi generator. It decays by beta- and 440-keV gamma emission, with a t(1/2) of 45.6 min, as compared to the ultra-short-lived alpha emitter, 213Po (t(1/2) = 4.2 micros). For therapy, the mice were injected either with 213Bi- or 90Y-labeled CO17-1A Fab', whereas control groups were left untreated or were given a radiolabeled irrelevant control antibody. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of each agent was determined. The mice were treated with or without inhibition of the renal accretion of antibody fragments by D-lysine (T. M. Behr et al., Cancer Res., 55: 3825-3834, 1995), bone marrow transplantation, or combinations thereof. Myelotoxicity and potential second-organ toxicities, as well as tumor growth, were monitored at weekly intervals. Additionally, the therapeutic efficacy of both 213Bi- and 90Y-labeled CO17-1A Fab' was compared in a GW-39 model metastatic to the liver of nude mice. In accordance with kidney uptake values of as high as > or = 80% of the injected dose per gram, the kidney was the first dose-limiting organ using both 90Y- and 213Bi-labeled Fab' fragments. Application of D-lysine decreased the renal dose by >3-fold. Accordingly, myelotoxicity became dose limiting with both conjugates. By using lysine protection, the MTD of 90Y-Fab' was 250 microCi and the MTD of 213Bi-Fab' was 700 microCi, corresponding to blood doses of 5-8 Gy. Additional bone marrow transplantation allowed for an increase of the MTD of 90Y-Fab' to 400 microCi and for 213Bi-Fab' to 1100 microCi, respectively. At these very dose levels, no biochemical or histological evidence of renal damage was observed (kidney doses of <35 Gy). At equitoxic dosing, 213Bi-labeled Fab' fragments were significantly more effective than the respective 90Y-labeled conjugates. In the metastatic model, all untreated controls died from rapidly progressing hepatic metastases at 6-8 weeks after tumor inoculation, whereas a histologically confirmed cure was observed in 95% of those animals treated with 700 microCi of 213Bi-Fab' 10 days after model induction, which is in contrast to an only 20% cure rate in mice treated with 250 microCi of 90Y-Fab'. These data show that RIT with alpha emitters may be therapeutically more effective than conventional beta emitters. Surprisingly, maximum tolerated blood doses were, at 5-8 Gy, very similar between high-LET alpha and low-LET beta emitters. Due to its short physical half-life, 213Bi appears to be especially suitable for use in conjunction with fast-clearing fragments. (+info)
Dosimetric evaluation and radioimmunotherapy of anti-tumour multivalent Fab' fragments.
We have been investigating the use of cross-linked divalent (DFM) and trivalent (TFM) versions of the anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody A5B7 as possible alternatives to the parent forms (IgG and F(ab')2) which have been used previously in clinical radioimmunotherapy (RIT) studies in colorectal carcinoma. Comparative biodistribution studies of similar sized DFM and F(ab')2 and TFM and IgG, radiolabelled with both 131I and 90Y have been described previously using the human colorectal tumour LS174T nude mouse xenograft model (Casey et al (1996) Br J Cancer 74: 1397-1405). In this study quantitative estimates of radiation distribution and RIT in the xenograft model provided more insight into selecting the most suitable combination for future RIT. Radiation doses were significantly higher in all tissues when antibodies were labelled with 90Y. Major contributing organs were the kidneys, liver and spleen. The extremely high absorbed dose to the kidneys on injection of 90Y-labelled DFM and F(ab')2 as a result of accumulation of the radiometal would result in extremely high toxicity. These combinations are clearly unsuitable for RIT. Cumulative dose of 90Y-TFM to the kidney was 3 times lower than the divalent forms but still twice as high as for 90Y-IgG. TFM clears faster from the blood than IgG, producing higher tumour to blood ratios. Therefore when considering only the tumour to blood ratios of the total absorbed dose, the data suggests that TFM would be the most suitable candidate. However, when corrected for equitoxic blood levels, doses to normal tissues for TFM were approximately twice the level of IgG, producing a two-fold increase in the overall tumour to normal tissue ratio. In addition RIT revealed that for a similar level of toxicity and half the administered activity, 90Y-IgG produced a greater therapeutic response. This suggests that the most promising A5B7 antibody form with the radionuclide 90Y may be IgG. Dosimetry analysis revealed that the tumour to normal tissue ratios were greater for all 131I-labelled antibodies. This suggests that 131I may be a more suitable radionuclide for RIT, in terms of lower toxicity to normal tissues. The highest tumour to blood dose and tumour to normal tissue ratio at equitoxic blood levels was 131I-labelled DFM, suggesting that 131I-DFM may be best combination of antibody and radionuclide for A5B7. The dosimetry estimates were in agreement with RIT results in that twice the activity of 131I-DFM must be administered to produce a similar therapeutic effect as 131I-TFM. The toxicity in this therapy experiment was minimal and further experiments at higher doses are required to observe if there would be any advantage of a higher initial dose rate for 131I-DFM. (+info)
Phase I/II trial of IDEC-Y2B8 radioimmunotherapy for treatment of relapsed or refractory CD20(+) B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
PURPOSE: Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (IDEC-Y2B8) is a murine immunoglobulin G1 kappa monoclonal antibody that covalently binds MX-DTPA (tiuxetan), which chelates the radioisotope yttrium-90. The antibody targets CD20, a B-lymphocyte antigen. A multicenter phase I/II trial was conducted to compare two doses of unlabeled rituximab given before radiolabeled antibody, to determine the maximum-tolerated single dose of IDEC-Y2B8 that could be administered without stem-cell support, and to evaluate safety and efficacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had relapsed or refractory (two prior regimens or anthracycline if low-grade disease) CD20(+) B-cell low-grade, intermediate-grade, or mantle-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). There was no limit on bulky disease, and 59% had at least one mass > or = 5 cm. RESULTS: The maximum-tolerated dose was 0.4 mCi/kg IDEC-Y2B8 (0.3 mCi/kg for patients with baseline platelet counts 100 to 149,000/microL). The overall response rate for the intent-to-treat population (n = 51) was 67% (26% complete response [CR]; 41% partial response [PR]); for low-grade disease (n = 34), 82% (26% CR; 56% PR); for intermediate-grade disease (n = 14), 43%; and for mantle-cell disease (n = 3), 0%. Responses occurred in patients with bulky disease (> or = 7 cm; 41%) and splenomegaly (50%). Kaplan-Meier estimate of time to disease progression in responders and duration of response is 12.9+ months and 11.7+ months, respectively. Adverse events were primarily hematologic and correlated with baseline extent of marrow involvement with NHL and baseline platelet count. One patient (2%) developed an anti-antibody response (human antichimeric antibody/human antimouse antibody). CONCLUSION: These phase I/II data demonstrate that IDEC-Y2B8 radioimmunotherapy is a safe and effective alternative for outpatient therapy of patients with relapsed or refractory NHL. A phase III study is ongoing. (+info)
Effects of intracoronary radiation on thrombosis after balloon overstretch injury in the porcine model.
BACKGROUND: The main complications of PTCA remain thrombosis and restenosis. Recent studies have demonstrated reduction in the neointimal hyperplasia after intracoronary radiation (IR) with doses of 10 to 25 Gy of ionizing radiation delivered by either beta- or gamma-emitters to injured vessels. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ionizing radiation on the thrombosis rate (TR) of injured porcine coronary arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-four juvenile swine (63 coronary arteries) were subjected to overstretch balloon injury followed by IR with doses of 0 to 18 Gy of either beta- or gamma-radiation. Two weeks after treatment, tissue sections were perfusion-fixed, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Verhoeff-van Gieson's stain, and analyzed for presence of a thrombus, thrombus morphology, and neointima formation by computer-assisted histomorphometry techniques. Although the overall TR increased dose-dependently from 0 to 18 Gy prescribed dose, luminal thrombi decreased. Thrombus area also decreased with increasing radiation dose, whether assessed at the prescription point or at the luminal surface, which corresponded to decreased intimal area. Furthermore, luminal thrombi present after IR tended to consist mostly of fibrin and thus were less organized than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that IR induces thrombosis but does not necessarily compromise the lumen. Strategies for reducing TR may further decrease intimal area as well as increasing the safety of this therapy. (+info)
Clinical optimization of pretargeted radioimmunotherapy with antibody-streptavidin conjugate and 90Y-DOTA-biotin.
Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) was evaluated using an antibody-streptavidin conjugate, followed by a biotin-galactose-human serum albumin clearing agent and 90Y-dodecane tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin as the final step for therapy. The objective was to develop a clinical protocol that could show an improved tumor-to-red marrow therapeutic ratio compared with conventional radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and at the same time preserve the efficiency of tumor targeting. METHOD: Forty-three patients with adenocarcinomas reactive to NR-LU-10 murine monoclonal antibody received the 3 components. Doses and timing parameters were varied to develop an optimized schema. In some patients, the conjugate was radiolabeled with 186Re as an imaging tracer to assess biodistribution of the conjugate and effectiveness of the clearing agent. 111In-DOTA-biotin was coinjected with 90Y-DOTA-biotin for quantitative imaging. Safety, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, dosimetry, and antiglobulin formation were evaluated. RESULTS: The optimal schema was defined as a conjugate dose of 125 microg/mL plasma volume followed at 48 h by a clearing agent in a 10:1 molar ratio of clearing agent to serum conjugate. The therapeutic third step was 0.5 mg radiobiotin administered 24 h later. No significant adverse events were observed after administration of any of the components. The mean tumor-to-marrow absorbed dose ratio when using the optimized PRIT schema was 63:1, compared with a 6:1 ratio reported previously for conventional RIT. Antiglobulin to murine antibody and to streptavidin developed in most patients. CONCLUSION: This initial study confirmed that the PRIT approach is safe and feasible and achieved a higher therapeutic ratio than that achieved with conventional RIT using the same antibody. (+info)