Reinforcement mechanism of dentin mechanical properties by intracanal medicaments.
The reinforcement mechanism of dentin mechanical properties by intracanal medicaments was investigated. The dumbbell-shaped specimens were prepared from a collagen sheet, demineralized dentin and organic dissolved dentin. After immersing the specimens in intracanal medicaments (eugenol and formocresol), the tensile test was carried out in 37 degrees C water and the Vickers hardness test was performed. The tensile strengths increased after eugenol and formocresol immersion, especially collagen and organic dissolved dentin after formocresol immersion and demineralized dentin after eugenol immersion. Thus, formocresol immersion might have reinforced the dentin tensile strength by protein coagulation, while eugenol immersion might have reinforced the dentin tensile strength by not only protein coagulation but also chelation with hydroxyapatite. However, the hardness values did not significantly change after intracanal medicament immersion. (+info)
BACKGROUND: Endodontics as a discipline has offered patients the opportunity to maintain their natural teeth. As the population expands and ages, the demand for endodontic therapy can be expected to increase as patients seek dental options to keep their teeth for a lifetime. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: New materials, techniques and instruments are entering the market-place to assist dentists in providing patients with more predictable and reliable endodontic treatment. In addition, these new systems make the delivery of endodontic services more efficient. This article describes these advances in endodontic treatment for dentists interested in incorporating these advances into their clinical practice. (+info)
Effect of NaClO treatment on bonding to root canal dentin using a new evaluation method.
The purposes of this study were to investigate the reliability and efficiency of a new evaluation method for resin bonding to root canal dentin, which measures both marginal adaptation and shear bond strength simultaneously, and to determine the effects of root canal irrigants on resin bonding. A wet bonding system (Single Bond) and a self-etching primer system (Clearfil Mega Bond) were employed; NaClO was used as a root canal irrigant. No gaps or changes in bond strength were observed despite the NaClO treatment when the wet bonding system was employed, while the gap formation ratio increased, and bond strength decreased with longer NaClO treatment time when the self-etching primer system was employed. These findings suggested that this new experimental method was effective for evaluating resin systems to the root canal wall dentin which is affected by irrigation with NaClO. (+info)
Comparison of temporal changes in components of formalin guaiacol under several storage conditions.
This study examined the effects of storage conditions such as time course, temperature, fluorescent light, and darkness on the components and antibacterial activity of formalin guaiacol (FG) used in endodontic treatment. We measured the quantities of formaldehyde and guaiacol in FG and antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The components and antibacterial activity of FG in the brown or transparent tightly sealed containers were not affected by temperature or fluorescent light throughout the 4 week test. However, in the loosely sealed containers, formaldehyde and guaiacol in FG sample decreased remarkably within one week, not only in a temperature- and time-dependent manner, but also under fluorescent light at 20 degrees C. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities in the FG sample were significantly attenuated in parallel with the decrease in formaldehyde levels. Fluorescent light caused color changes and crystallization of FG samples in the transparent containers. These results suggest that it is important to replace fresh FG every 5 to 7 days for endodontic treatment and that, in the dental office, it is advisable to store fresh FG in tightly sealed containers every 2 weeks to maintain its efficacy. (+info)
Effect of NaOCl treatment on bond strength between indirect resin core-buildup and dentin.
The aim of this study was to investigate the bond strength between indirect resin core-buildup and dentin treated with or without hypochlorite (NaOCl) gel. The post-space was made in five extracted human molars with obturated root canals, and the indirect resin core was produced on a gypsum model. Then, the dentin surface was treated with/without NaOCl, followed by luting of the resin core into the cavity. After storage for 24 h in 37 degrees C water, the specimens were sectioned for measuring bond strength to the root and coronal dentin, and were subjected to micro-tensile bond strength (MTBS) testing. Two-way ANOVA showed that significant differences in MTBS were revealed for both factors of NaOCl treatment and dentin region. It is concluded that, for indirect resin core-buildup, the proper use of the NaOCl gel to dentin could increase the bond strength. (+info)
Antimicrobial effect of 2% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine tested by different methods.
The objective of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial effect of 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) by agar diffusion test and by direct exposure test. Five microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aernginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, and one mixture of these were used. These strains were inoculated in brain heart infusion (BHI) and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. For the agar diffusion test (ADT), 18 Petri plates with 20 ml of BHI agar were inoculated with 0.1 ml of the microbial suspensions, using sterile swabs that were spread on the medium, obtaining growth injunction. Fifty-four paper disks (9 mm in diameter) were immersed in the experimental solutions for 1 min. Subsequently, three papers disks containing one of the substances were placed on the BHI agar surface in each agar plate. The plates were maintained for 1 h at room temperature, and then incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h. The diameter of microbial inhibition was measured around the papers disks containing the substances. For the direct exposure test, 162#50 sterile absorbent paper points were immersed in the experimental suspensions for 5 min, and were then placed on Petri plates and covered with one of the irrigant solutions, or with sterile distilled water (control group). After intervals of 5, 1 0 and 30 min, the paper points were removed from contact with the solutions and individually immersed in 7 ml of Letheen Broth, followed by incubation at 37 degrees C for 48 h. Microbial growth was evaluated by turbidity of the culture medium. A 0.1 ml inoculum obtained from the Letheen Broth was transferred to 7 ml of BHI, and incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h. Bacterial growth was again evaluated by turbidity of the culture medium. Gram stain of BHI cultures was used for verification of contamination and growth was determined by macroscopic and microscopic examination. The best performance of antimicrobial effectiveness of NaOCI was observed in the direct exposure test, and of CHX was observed in the agar diffusion test. The magnitude of antimicrobial effect was influenced by the experimental methods, biological indicators and exposure time. (+info)
Yeasts in apical periodontitis.
Microbiological reports of apical periodontitis have revealed that yeasts can be isolated from approximately 5-20% of infected root canals. They occur either in pure cultures or together with bacteria. Almost all isolated yeasts belong to the genus Candida, and the predominant species is C. albicans. Pheno- and genotypic profiles of C. albicans isolates show heterogeneity comparable with those of isolates from other oral sites. C. albicans expresses several virulence factors that are capable of infecting the dentin-pulp complex, including dentinal tubules. This causes, consequentially, an inflammatory response around the root apex, which suggests a pathogenic role for this organism in apical periodontitis. Yeasts are particularly associated with persistent root canal infections that do not respond favorably to conservative root canal therapy. This may be due to the resistance of all oral Candida species against a commonly used topical medicament, calcium hydroxide. However, other antimicrobial agents may offer alternative therapeutic approaches and improve the treatment of these persistent cases of apical periodontitis. (+info)
Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Sealapex, AH Plus or Sealer Plus for sealing. After 180 days, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the obtained histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for optical microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical repair. The groups filled with Sealapex and AH Plus had better histological repair (p < 0.05) than the group filled with Sealer Plus, that had unsatisfactory results. (+info)