Astrovirus-associated gastroenteritis in children.
In a small astrovirus-associated outbreak of gastroenteritis in a ward of a local children's hospital two out of five children with symptoms excreted astrovirus particles. No astrovirus particles were found in faeces from the remaining asymptomatic child, and no other viral or bacterial pathogens were found in any of the children. Virus excretion persisted for only a few days. Rising antibody titres to the astrovirus particles were demonstrated in one child, and IgM was also demonstrated in this patient's serum. (+info)
Isolation of small viruses resembling astroviruses and caliciviruses from acute enteritis of calves.
Small round viruses (SRV) were isolated from the faeces of diarrhoeic calves from three farms. All three SRV preparations caused diarrhoea experimentally in gnotobiotic calves. Each preparation contained viral particles of two morphological types, "astrovirus-like" and "calicivirus-like", and from one preparation the two particle types were separated from each other. The calicivirus-like agent ("Newbury agent") was 33 nm in diameter, and caused diarrhoea in gnotobiotic calves with villous atrophy and D-xylose malabsorption. This virus did not infect cell cultures. The astrovirus-like agent did not cause diarrhoea in two gnotobiotic calves; however, it infected cell cultures (primary calf kidney) and the infected cells immunofluoresced with convalescent gnotobiotic-calf antiserum. The astrovirus-like agents in the three preparations were antigenically related. Experiments in calves showed that there was a degree of cross-protection between the three SRV preparations, as judged by the presence or absence of diarrhoea, but that at least three unrelated pathogens were present. (+info)
Unusual resistance to ionizing radiation of the viruses of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie.
The titers of several preparations of kuru. Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, and scrapie viruses were reduced by only 1/10th or less by high doses of gamma radiation of 50 kGy and by only 1/10th-1/1000th or less for 200 kGy. This unusual radiation resistance of the two human viruses further links them with the scrapie virus and suggests that the genetic information of all three viruses is considerably smaller than that of any other known viruses of mammals. (+info)
Immune response and prevalence of antibody to Norwalk enteritis virus as determined by radioimmunoassay.
A solid-phase microtiter radioimmunoassay was established for the detection of Norwalk virus and its antibody, with clinical materials from human volunteers previously studied in Massachusetts as reagents. A study of 308 Massachusetts residents showed that serum antibody to Norwalk agent was rarely present during childhood but was detectable in approximately 50% of adults. All volunteers inoculated with Norwalk virus who developed illness seroconverted (10/10), whereas only one-third (5/15) of nonill volunteers seroconverted (P = 0.0009). The 10 nonill, nonseroconverting subjects had undetectable to low preexisting antibody levels. Paradoxically, 10/13 subjects with preexisting antibody became ill, whereas 17/25 lacking antibody did not (P = 0.009). All 3 subjects with preexisting anti-Norwalk radioimmunoassay blocking activity in duodenal intraluminal fluids became ill, whereas only 5/11 lacking such activity developed illness (P = 0.15). These data further support the unique concept that some individuals are susceptible to repeated infections with this agent, whereas others are incapable of developing infection. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of Borna disease agent cDNA clones.
Borna disease (BD) is a neurologic syndrome characterized by behavioral disturbances and the accumulation of specific proteins in limbic system neurons. A viral etiology has been proposed because BD can be induced in birds, rodents, and primates by inoculation with filtered brain homogenates from animals with BD. We report here the isolation and preliminary characterization of cDNA clones from a rat with BD. These clones hybridized to specific transcripts in BD rat brain and arrested in vitro translation of BD proteins. In situ hybridization experiments using RNA probes prepared from these clones showed an abundance of these transcripts in limbic system neurons. Northern (RNA) hybridizations using these RNA probes indicated that the BD agent is probably a virus with major transcripts of 8.5, 2.1, and 0.8 kilobases. (+info)
Biochemical and biophysical characteristics of diarrhea viruses of human and calf origin.
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of purified preparations of human and calf diarrhea viruses indicated eight polypeptide components, or possibly nine in the case of the calf diarrhea virus. Thermal denaturation and analytical studies of the calf diarrhea virus genome showed it to consist of 11 double-stranded segments of RNA. The placing of the human and calf diarrhea viruses together with other similar viruses into a genus separate from reovirus and orbivirus, but within the family Reoviridae, is discussed. (+info)
Virus-like particles in bovine sera for tissue culture.
Virus-like particles were found in nine different bovine sera for tissue culture from commercial suppliers. These particles were spherical with an overall diam. between 70 and 95 nm. After negative staining, surface projections of about 11 to 12 nm were clearly seen. One of the nine sera was positive in an Ouchterlony test with antisera against bovine viral diarrhoea virus. (+info)
Transmission of Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) and its effect on the survival of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster.