Urethral response to latex and Silastic catheters.
The reaction of the urethral mucosa to latex and Silastic catheters was compared in two groups of patients undergoing prostatectomy. The bacteriologic response in the two groups differed little; however, Silastic catheters produced less cellular reaction than latex catheters. (+info)
Obstructive uropathy and hydronephrosis in male KK-Ay mice: a report of cases.
Uropathy associated with hydronephrosis was observed frequently in our male KK-Ay mouse colony during a long-term study of diabetes. The lesion occurred in 24 of the 31 KK-Ay male mice and accounted for the greatest number of spontaneous deaths among them. It was observed after 4 months of age and involved about hard plugs of altered seminal material resembling the seminal vesicle secretion. The plugs became impacted in the urethral bulb and the bladder. The penile anatomy, with its flexure, pressure on the urethra from the bulbocavernosus muscle, and the characteristic ability of the seminal fluid to easily coagulate to form the vaginal plug may have contributed to the lesion. Correlation between development of the uropathy and diabetes has not been established. (+info)
True hermaphroditism associated with microphthalmia.
A 4-year-old boy with an undescending left testis, penoscrotal hypospadia and bilateral microphthalmia was admitted to our hospital. Chromosome analysis revealed a karyotype of 46, XX del(x)(p2 2,31) and the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) was negative. The right testis was located in the scrotum and a left cystic ovary-like gonad, a salpinx and a unicorn uterus were found in the left inguinal canal. Histologically the gonad was an ovotestis in which primordial follicles covered infantile seminiferous tubules. Microphthalmia is observed in some congenital syndromes caused by interstitial deletion of the X chromosome. This case suggested that the short arm of the X chromosome was involved in the differentiation of the gonad. Very closely located follicles and infantile seminiferous tubules indicated that induction of meiosis in the fetus was controlled by the local microenvironment in follicles and seminiferous tubules, and not by the systemic hormonal condition. (+info)
Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary cultures by a slide agglutination test.
Hen antigonococcal lipopolysaccharide hen serum was used in a simple slide agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary isolates. (+info)
Correlation of periurethral bacterial flora with bacteriuria and urinary tract infection in children with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization.
Periurethral bacteria are inoculated daily into the urine of children with neurogenic bladder during clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). We examined how frequently periurethral bacterial species produced bacteriuria in children followed longitudinally. When Escherichia coli was detected on the periurethra, bacteriuria was also present 93% of the time. When Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, or Enterococcus species or nonpathogens were detected on the periurethra, bacteriuria was present 80%, 40%, 40%, and 25% of the time, respectively. Clonal typing of multiple colonies of E. coli from each periurethral and urine culture revealed that children carried only one or two E. coli clones in their urinary tracts over months of surveillance. When E. coli was detected in the urine, the identical clone was on the periurethra. E. coli persisted for weeks in the urine without causing symptoms. Occasionally the same E. coli clone carried for weeks caused a urinary tract infection. Bacteriuria frequently occurs after inoculation of periurethral E. coli into the urine during CIC. (+info)
The physiology of the mammalian urinary outflow tract.
Urinary outflow from the mammalian bladder occurs through the urethra. This outflow tract is a complicated structure composed of striated and smooth muscle and vascular urothelium. It is controlled by somatic and autonomic nerves and has several functions: it generates sustained tone to prevent urinary leakage during bladder filling; it generates transient reflex increases in pressure to prevent opening of the lumen when abdominal pressure rises; it undergoes relaxation preceding micturition and can generate urethral opening and shortening during micturition. A urethral pressure profile shows a peak pressure of > or = 100 cmH2O. The outermost coat is striated muscle, the striated or external sphincter. The fibres are predominantly circularly oriented. The extent varies in different species and between sexes. In the human female it extends the length of the urethra, and is composed mainly of slow twitch fibres. In the male, the sphincter extends from the membranous urethra over the base of the prostate and has nearly equal numbers of slow and fast twitch fibres. In both sexes, the posterior border may be deficient in striated muscle, and filled by circularly oriented smooth muscle. Activity in the slow twitch fibres through somatic nerves may be continuous during bladder filling. Outer circular and inner longitudinal smooth muscle is present Strips from either layer will generate sustained tone particularly if dissected from the high pressure zone. This tone is myogenic, and may be achieved in the absence of action potentials, but relies on influx of calcium through L-type calcium channels. Both layers receive sympathetic and parasympathetic excitatory innervation and nitrergic inhibitory innervation. Normal urethral pressure requires blood flow to the urothelium (lamina propria). Striated and smooth muscles are both thought to contribute to the resting urethral pressure in the human. The precise role of the smooth muscles during micturition is as yet unresolved. (+info)
Increased frequency of detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma genitalium in AIDS patients without urethral symptoms.
The roles of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in nongonococcal urethritis are not yet well established. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of these microorganisms in the urethral tracts of 187 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected male patients with no clinical signs of urethritis. The results indicate that the prevalence of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum was higher in AIDS patients than in asymptomatic, HIV-1-infected patients and in healthy individuals. The high rate of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas detected in AIDS patients, in the absence of urethritis, argues against major roles in causing disease at the urethral mucosal level for these microorganisms. (+info)
Prolonged enhancement of the micturition reflex in the cat by repetitive stimulation of bladder afferents.
1. Prolonged modulation of the parasympathetic micturition reflex was studied in cats anaesthetized by alpha-chloralose. Reflex discharges were recorded from a thin pelvic nerve filament to the bladder and evoked by stimulation of the remaining ipsilateral bladder pelvic nerves or urethral branches of the pudendal nerve. 2. Stimulation of bladder or urethral afferents at Adelta intensity evoked micturition reflexes with a latency of 90-120 ms. Such reflexes were much enhanced following repetitive conditioning stimulation of the same afferents at 20 Hz for 5 min. 3. The reflex enhancement lasted more than 1 h after the conditioning stimulation. The effect was not prevented by a preceding complete transection of the sympathetic supply to the bladder. A prolonged suppression of the reflex was obtained after conditioning stimulation of afferents in the dorsal clitoris nerves. 4. It is proposed that the prolonged modulations of the micturition reflex represent physiological adaptive processes, which preserve a flawless function of the bladder during life. The observations provide a theoretical explanation for the beneficial effect of electric nerve stimulation in patients with voiding disorders. (+info)