Organ-specific (localized) synthesis of Ig light chain amyloid.
Ig amyloidosis is usually a systemic disease with multisystem involvement. However, in a significant number of cases amyloid deposition is limited to one specific organ. It has not been determined if the Ig light chain (LC) amyloid precursor protein in localized amyloidosis is synthesized by circulating plasma cells with targeting of the amyloid fibril-forming process to one specific organ, or whether the synthesis of Ig LC and fibril formation occurs entirely as a localized process. In the present study local synthesis of an amyloid fibril precursor LC was investigated. Amyloid fibrils were isolated from a ureter that was obstructed by extensive infiltration of the wall with amyloid. Amino acid sequence analysis of the isolated fibril subunit protein proved it to be derived from a lambdaII Ig LC. Plasma cells within the lesion stained positively with labeled anti-lambda Ab and by in situ hybridization using an oligonucleotide probe specific for lambda-LC mRNA. RT-PCR of mRNA extracted from the tumor and direct DNA sequencing gave the nucleotide sequence coding specifically for the lambdaII amyloid subunit protein, thus confirming local synthesis of the LC protein. (+info)
Sonographic diagnosis of ureteral tumors.
We present our experience with transabdominal ultrasonographic diagnosis of ureteral tumors. During the years 1989 to 1998, 16 patients were diagnosed as having ureteral tumors. These patients were referred for sonographic examination for evaluation of hematuria (seven patients) or flank pain (four patients) or for follow-up screening in patients who were asymptomatic but at high risk for transitional cell carcinoma because of known past bladder tumor (five patients). Ten of these patients underwent intravenous urography examination, three patients had retrograde pyelography, and 11 patients underwent CT scanning. Ultrasonography revealed the ureteral tumors in all 16 patients, which appeared as hypoechoic intraluminal soft tissue. Three tumors were localized in the upper ureter, four in the middle ureter, and nine in the distal ureter. The degree of ureterohydronephrosis was minimal (two cases), mild (five cases), moderate (eight cases), or severe (one case). Eleven tumors caused local widening of the ureteral diameter. On intravenous urography, four patients had a nonfunctioning kidney, three patients had unexplained ureterohydronephrosis, and three patients showed ureteral filling defects, of which only two had irregular contours. On retrograde pyelography, two patients had filling defects (one of which with smooth margins), and one had a truncated ureter. On CT the tumor was clearly demonstrated in only seven patients. We found that ultrasonography can be a useful diagnostic tool in the workup of ureteral tumors. (+info)
Cytogenetic monoclonality in multifocal uroepithelial carcinomas: evidence of intraluminal tumour seeding.
Twenty-one multifocal urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas, mostly bladder tumours, from a total of six patients were processed for cytogenetic analysis after short-term culturing of the tumour cells. Karyotypically related, often identical, cytogenetically complex clones were found in all informative tumours from each case, including the recurrent tumours. Rearrangement of chromosome 9, leading to loss of material from the short and/or the long arm, was seen in all cases, indicating that this is an early, pathogenetically important event in transitional cell carcinogenesis. The presence of related clones with great karyotypic similarity in anatomically distinct tumours from the same bladder indicates that multifocal uroepithelial tumours have a monoclonal origin and arise via intraluminal seeding of viable cancer cells shed from the original tumour. Later lesions may develop also from cells shed from the so called second primary tumours. The relatively complex karyotypes seen in all lesions from most cases argue that the seeding of tumour cells is a late event that succeeds the acquisition by them of multiple secondary genetic abnormalities. (+info)
Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi.
CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria during the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory urography, cystoscopy or ultrasonography. Two months after the calculus had been eliminated, the patient began to have serious symptoms and a grade III transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter was discovered. Total nephroureterectomy and M.V.A.C. (Methotrexate + Vinblastina + Doxo Rubicina + Cisplatina) chemotherapy were tried unsuccessfully. In this report we emphasize the diagnostic difficulty caused by the concomitant presence of the two pathologies. In our opinion, the rapid evolution in this case is directly related to the high grade of the tumor. (+info)
Gemcitabine plus cisplatin, an active regimen in advanced urothelial cancer: a phase II trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine (2', 2'-difluorodeoxycytidine) plus cisplatin in previously untreated patients with advanced transitional-cell carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with measurable advanced transitional-cell carcinoma who had received no prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease were scheduled to receive gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) intravenously over 30 minutes on days 1, 8, and 15 and cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) over 1 hour on day 2 of a 28-day cycle. Prior adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced disease was allowed if this was completed more than 1 year before study entry. RESULTS: There were six complete responses and 10 partial responses in 28 assessable patients, for an overall response rate of 16 of 28 (57%). The response rate on an intent-to-treat basis was 16 of 31 patients (52%). The median survival is 13.2 months, with 18 patients still alive at this time. Toxicity was primarily hematologic, with 12 of 31 patients (39%) having > or = grade 3 granulocytopenia and 17 of 31 (55%) having > or = grade 3 thrombocytopenia. Two patients had febrile neutropenia. All patients required a dose modification of gemcitabine at some point in their therapy; the primary reason was thrombocytopenia and/or neutropenia. CONCLUSION: Gemcitabine plus cisplatin is an active regimen for the treatment of urothelial cancer. (+info)
Urothelial cancer at different tumour sites: role of smoking and habitual intake of analgesics and laxatives. Results of the Berlin Urothelial Cancer Study.
BACKGROUND: In Germany about 20000 new cases of urothelial cancer (UC) and about 7500 deaths from bladder cancer alone occur each year. Among the manifold risk factors, little research has been done on the role of smoking and the habitual intake of analgesics and laxatives-practices that are common in parts of the German population. The aim of this study is to define the proportion of risk derived from these preventable habits for the development of UC at its different sites. Subjects and methods. A case-control study in the area of the former West Berlin was performed from 1990 to 1995 including all newly diagnosed incident cases of UC from the eight hospitals of the study area. Study subjects and population-based controls individually matched by age (+/-2 years) and sex were evaluated by a standardized face-to-face interview about the lifelong exposure to cigarette smoking, analgesics, and laxatives. Adjusted risk analysis was carried out for the main exposure variables in relation to the different sites of UC in the bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis. RESULTS: Six hundred and forty-seven cases of UC (571 bladder, 25 ureter, and 51 renal pelvis) and an identical number of controls were included in the analysis (response rate in cases, 84.6%; in controls, 70.2%). Smoking increased the risk of bladder cancer (BC) by an odds ratio (OR) of 3.22 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.29-4.52), that of ureter (URC) or renal pelvis cancer (RPC) together by OR 6.20 (95% CI 2.04-18.81), and that of RPC alone by OR 5.91 (95% CI 1.47-23.66). Ex-smoking was associated with an increased risk for BC (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.10-2.19). Intake of more than 1 kg of phenacetin in analgesic mixtures was associated with an OR of 5.28 for RPC (intake of > or = 1 kg paracetamol, OR 3.27; > or = 1 kg pyrazolones, 1.12) and 0.75 for BC (not significant). Laxatives significantly increased the risk of BC (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.26-3.63) and RPC/URC (OR 9.62, 95% CI 1. 01-91.24) in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Habitual risks from smoking and intake of laxatives significantly contribute to the development of UC, especially of the renal pelvis and ureter cancer. Intake of at least 1 kg of analgesic substances (anilides, pyrazolones) as calculated from this study base is associated with increased but not significant risks for RPC. These data underline that restrictive and educational measurements focusing on common habits would have a strong impact on preventing UC in Germany. (+info)
An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.
A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology. (+info)
Synchronous presentation of primary renal adenocarcinoma and contralateral ureteric metastasis.
The synchronous presentation of a primary renal adenocarcinoma and contralateral uretic metastasis is discussed. The pattern of immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the contralateral ureteric obstruction was the result of a metastasis from the primary renal adenocarcinoma. (+info)