Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development.
The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants. (+info)
Observations on some additional abnormalities in situs inversus viscerum.
The abnormal findings in a case of Situs inversus totalis are described. The duodenum was placed abnormally and retained its primitive mesentery. The proximal 22 in of jejunum were retroperitoneal. The attachment of the root of the mesentery to the posterior abdominal wall had a 7-shaped appearance, and there was a partial failure of the primitive mesocolon to adhere to the posterior abdominal wall. The common hepatic artery arose from the superior meseneric artery, which also provided a branch to the proximal jejunal loop. The right vagus nerve was found anterior to the oesophagus at the oesophageal hiatus in the diaphragm, and the left vagus was posterior. A double ureter was present on the right side. The findings are discussed in relation to mid-gut development. (+info)
Dominant effects of RET receptor misexpression and ligand-independent RET signaling on ureteric bud development.
During kidney development, factors from the metanephric mesenchyme induce the growth and repeated branching of the ureteric bud, which gives rise to the collecting duct system and also induces nephrogenesis. One signaling pathway known to be required for this process includes the receptor tyrosine kinase RET and co-receptor GFR(&agr;)-1, which are expressed in the ureteric bud, and the secreted ligand GDNF produced in the mesenchyme. To examine the role of RET signaling in ureteric bud morphogenesis, we produced transgenic mice in which the pattern of RET expression was altered, or in which a ligand-independent form of RET kinase was expressed. The Hoxb7 promoter was used to express RET throughout the ureteric bud branches, in contrast to its normal expression only at the bud tips. This caused a variable inhibition of ureteric bud growth and branching reminiscent of, but less severe than, the RET knockout phenotype. Manipulation of the level of GDNF, in vitro or in vivo, suggested that this defect was due to insufficient rather than excessive RET signaling. We propose that RET receptors expressed ectopically on ureteric bud trunk cells sequester GDNF, reducing its availability to the normal target cells at the bud tips. When crossed to RET knockout mice, the Hoxb7/RET transgene, which encoded the RET9 isoform, supported normal kidney development in some RET-/- animals, indicating that the other major isoform, RET51, is not required in this organ. Expression of a Hoxb7/RET-PTC2 transgene, encoding a ligand-independent form of RET kinase, caused the development of abnormal nodules, outside the kidney or at its periphery, containing branched epithelial tubules apparently formed by deregulated growth of the ureteric bud. This suggests that RET signaling is not only necessary but is sufficient to induce ureteric bud growth, and that the orderly, centripetal growth of the bud tips is controlled by the spatially and temporally regulated expression of GDNF and RET. (+info)
A2B adenosine receptors mediate relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter: adenosine modulation of non adrenergic non cholinergic excitatory neurotransmission.
1. The present study was designed to characterize the adenosine receptors involved in the relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter, and to investigate the action of adenosine on the non adrenergic non cholinergic (NANC) excitatory ureteral neurotransmission. 2. In U46619 (10(-7) M)-contracted strips treated with the adenosine uptake inhibitor, nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10(-6) M), adenosine and related analogues induced relaxations with the following potency order: 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) = 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (CPCA) = 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) > adenosine > cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) = N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide (IB-MECA) = 2-[p-(carboxyethyl)-phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoaden os ine (CGS21680). 3. Epithelium removal or incubation with indomethacin (3 x 10(-6) M) and L-N(G)-nitroarginine (L-NOARG, 3 x 10(-5) M), inhibitors of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO) synthase, respectively, failed to modify the relaxations to adenosine. 4. 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 10(-8) M) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl) [1,2,4]-triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385, 3 x 10(-8) M and 10(-7) M), A1 and A2A receptor selective antagonists, respectively, did not modify the relaxations to adenosine or NECA. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, 10(-5) M) and DPCPX (10(-6) M), which block A1/A2-receptors, reduced such relaxations. 5. In strips treated with guanethidine (10(-5) M), atropine (10(-7) M), L-NOARG (3 x 10(-5) M) and indomethacin (3 x 10(-6) M), both electrical field stimulation (EFS, 5 Hz) and exogenous ATP (10(-4) M) induced contractions of preparations. 8-PT (10(-5) M) increased both contractions. DPCPX (10(-8) M), NECA (10(-4) M), CPCA, (10(-4) M) and 2-CA (10(-4) M) did not alter the contractions to EFS. 6. The present results suggest that adenosine relaxes the pig intravesical ureter, independently of prostanoids or NO, through activation of A2B-receptors located in the smooth muscle. This relaxation may modulate the ureteral NANC excitatory neurotransmission through a postsynaptic mechanism. (+info)
Vesicoureteral reflux in male and female neonates as detected by voiding ultrasonography.
BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is assumed to be congenital, and its early diagnosis is desired in order to prevent acquired renal damage. However, the incidence of VUR in neonates remains to be revealed. METHODS: Two thousand newborn babies (1048 boys and 952 girls) underwent voiding ultrasonography (an ultrasound examination of urinary tract during provoked voiding). Those who showed transient renal pelvic dilation during voiding, who had small kidneys, or who subsequently developed urinary infection underwent voiding cystourethrography. RESULTS: Transient renal pelvic dilation was observed in 16 babies (0.8%), including one boy with small kidneys. Among the rest of the babies, one boy had a small kidney, and nine babies subsequently developed urinary infection. Voiding cystourethrography revealed VUR in 24 ureters of 16 children (11 boys and 5 girls). Dimercaptosuccinate renoscintigraphy confirmed small kidneys, with generally reduced tracer uptake in a total of three boys, all having VUR. Voiding ultrasonography detected transient renal pelvic dilation in 17 (71%) of the 24 kidneys with VUR and, strikingly, 16 of the 17 (94%) kidneys with high-grade VUR (grade III or more). CONCLUSION: This study effectively detected VUR in 0.8% of the neonates (mostly of high grades and predominantly in males) and voiding ultrasonography showed a decided usefulness for the detection of VUR. The male preponderance of VUR in neonates was considered to be due to the occurrence of congenitally small kidneys, with reflux found exclusively in males and easier ultrasound detection of VUR in male neonates because the majority of diagnoses are reported to be high grades of VUR. (+info)
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 stimulates mesenchymal growth and regulates epithelial branching during morphogenesis of the rat metanephros.
Development of the embryonic kidney results from reciprocal signaling between the ureteric bud and the metanephric mesenchyme. To identify the signaling molecules, we developed an assay in which metanephric mesenchymes are rescued from apoptosis by factors secreted from ureteric bud cells (UB cells). Purification and sequencing of one such factor identified the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) as a metanephric mesenchymal growth factor. Growth activity was unlikely due to TIMP-2 inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases because ilomastat, a synthetic inhibitor of these enzymes, had no mesenchymal growth action. TIMP-2 was also involved in morphogenesis of the ureteric bud, inhibiting its branching and changing the deposition of its basement membrane; these effects were due to TIMP-2 inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases, as they were reproduced by ilomastat. Thus, TIMP-2 regulates kidney development by at least 2 distinct mechanisms. In addition, TIMP-2 was secreted from UB cells by mesenchymal factors that are essential for ureteric bud development. Hence, the mesenchyme synchronizes its own growth with ureteric morphogenesis by stimulating the secretion of TIMP-2 from the ureteric bud. (+info)
The renal lesions that develop in neonatal mice during angiotensin inhibition mimic obstructive nephropathy.
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of angiotensin action, pharmacologically or genetically, during the neonatal period leads to renal anomalies involving hypoplastic papilla and dilated calyx. Recently, we documented that angiotensinogen (Agt -/-) or angiotensin type 1 receptor nullizygotes (Agtr1 -/-) do not develop renal pelvis nor ureteral peristaltic movement, both of which are essential for isolating the kidney from the high downstream ureteral pressure. We therefore examined whether these renal anomalies could be characterized as "obstructive" nephropathy. METHODS: Agtr1 -/- neonatal mice were compared with wild-type neonates, the latter subjected to surgical complete unilateral ureteral ligation (UUO), by analyzing morphometrical, immunohistochemical, and molecular indices. Agtr1 -/- mice were also subjected to a complete UUO and were compared with wild-type UUO mice by quantitative analysis. To assess the function of the urinary tract, baseline pelvic and ureteral pressures were measured. RESULTS: The structural anomalies were qualitatively indistinguishable between the Agtr1 -/- without surgical obstruction versus the wild type with complete UUO. Thus, in both kidneys, the calyx was enlarged, whereas the papilla was atrophic; tubulointerstitial cells underwent proliferation and also apoptosis. Both were also characterized by interstitial macrophage infiltration and fibrosis, and within the local lesion, transforming growth factor-beta 1, platelet-derived growth factor-A and insulin-like growth factor-1 were up-regulated, whereas epidermal growth factor was down-regulated. Moreover, quantitative differences that exist between mutant kidneys without surgical obstruction and wild-type kidneys with surgical UUO were abolished when both underwent the same complete surgical UUO. The hydraulic baseline pressure was always lower in the pelvis than that in the ureter in the wild type, whereas this pressure gradient was reversed in the mutant. CONCLUSION: The abnormal kidney structure that develops in neonates during angiotensin inhibition is attributed largely to "functional obstruction" of the urinary tract caused by the defective development of peristaltic machinery. (+info)
The effect of cyclopiazonic acid on excitation-contraction coupling in guinea-pig ureteric smooth muscle: role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
1. We have investigated the effect of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase on excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in guinea-pig ureter, by measuring membrane currents, action potentials, intracellular [Ca2+] and force. 2. CPA (20 micrometers) significantly enhanced the amplitude and duration of phasic contractions of ureteric smooth muscle associated with action potentials. This was accompanied by an increase in the duration of the intracellular Ca2+ transient in intact tissue and single cells but not their amplitude. However, CPA also slowed the rate of rise, and fall, of the force 1|1|Phiand1Phi Ca2+ transients. 3. Membrane potential recordings showed that CPA produced a small depolarization and a large increase in the duration of the plateau phase of the action potential. 4. Patch-clamp studies showed marked inhibition of outward potassium current in the presence of CPA and an inhibition of spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs). CPA had no effect on inward Ca2+ current. 5. These data suggest that the SR plays a major role in modulating the excitability of the ureter, particularly via curtailing the action potential duration. This in turn will shorten the Ca2+ transient and decrease force. This negative action on developed force predominates over any small role it may play in initiating force in the guinea-pig ureter. (+info)