Human African trypanosomiasis: a latex agglutination field test for quantifying IgM in cerebrospinal fluid.
LATEX/IgM, a rapid agglutination test for the semi-quantitative detection of IgM in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with African trypanosomiasis, is described in this article. The lyophilized reagent has been designed for field use and remains stable at 45 degrees C for one year. The test has been evaluated on cerebrospinal fluid samples from trypanosome-infected and non-infected patients, by comparison with commercial latex agglutination, radial immunodiffusion, and nephelometry. All test systems yielded similar results. (+info)
Upregulation of the chemokines Rantes, MCP-1, MIP-1a and MIP-2 in early infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and inhibition by sympathetic denervation of the spleen.
We examined the induction of 4 chemokines during early experimental African trypanosomiasis using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. mRNA expression and protein production of Rantes, MCP-1, MIP-1a and MIP-2 were studied in splenocytes obtained at 0 h, 4 h and 12 h post-infection. Splenic denervation was performed to study the role of the central nervous system in early infection. The mRNA for Rantes increased at 4 h and declined at 12 h, but the protein level was high at both time-points. MCP-1 and MIP-la had elevated mRNA and protein levels at 12 h post-infection. MIP-2 mRNA was high at both 4 h and 12 h, but the protein level was only increased at 12 h. Splenic denervation, but not sham operation, suppressed these responses. The upregulation of these chemokines during very early infection suggests a chemokine role in the developing immunopathology The sympathetic nervous system may, however, participate in modulation of such early immune responses. (+info)
Induction of the trypanosome lymphocyte-triggering factor (TLTF) and neutralizing antibodies to the TLTF in experimental african trypanosomiasis.
We have demonstrated that African trypanosomes secrete a novel trypanokine, the trypanosome-derived lymphocyte-triggering factor (TLTF), which activates CD8+ cells to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) that in turn stimulates parasite growth. The gene for TLTF was recently cloned, and recombinant TLTF (rTLTF) showed bioactivity that was similar to native TLTF. In this work, we employed two anti-TLTF monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to detect levels of TLTF during Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei ) infections in mice. Furthermore, rTLTF was utilized to assess levels of anti-TLTF antibodies. Mice with intact genes (wild type), and knockout mice with disrupted IFN-gamma (IFN-gamma-/-) or IFN-gammaR (IFN-gammaR-/-) genes were studied. The knockout mice were used in order to illustrate the role of IFN-gamma in the production of antibodies to TLTF. While wild-type mice showed high parasitaemia accompanied by high TLTF levels and low anti-TLTF antibodies at day 3 postinfection (p.i.), low TLTF was measured together with increased anti-TLTF antibodies at day 21 p.i. IFN-gamma-/- mice exhibited very low parasitaemia, TLTF and anti-TLTF antibody levels. In contrast, IFN-gammaR-/- mice revealed very high parasitaemia, increased TLTF levels, but decreased anti-TLTF antibodies. In a biological assay for TLTF, Fab' fragments of anti-TLTF antibodies dose dependently inhibited the TLTF-induced IFN-gamma production by splenocytes, suggesting a regulatory importance of these antibodies. Our data demonstrate a role of IFN-gamma in the generation of neutralizing antibodies to TLTF. Furthermore, the induction of TLTF and its antibodies may constitute a new approach for future diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis. (+info)
Clearance of trypanosomes from the blood of infected Cape buffalo was associated with the development of two responses: (i) complement-dependent and clone-specific lytic activity and (ii) complement-independent trypanocidal activity that was not restricted by trypanosome clone or species. This latter activity was mediated by H2O2 and required the presence of xanthine oxidase in serum but not the addition of purine substrates. Expression of the xanthine oxidase-dependent trypanocidal activity in Cape buffalo serum was coincident with, and required, a decline in its H2O2 catabolic activity. The H2O2 catabolic activity of Cape buffalo serum was due solely to catalase and declined by eightfold around the time that trypanosomes were cleared from the blood, accompanied by a fivefold drop in erythrocyte-associated catalase activity. The Cape buffalo did not develop subsequent parasitemic waves. Clearance of parasitemia in similarly infected cattle was also associated with development of trypanosome clone-specific lytic activity, but not with the acquisition of H2O2-dependent trypanocidal activity in serum, and the cattle supported recurring parasitemia. The lack of trypanocidal activity in pre- and postinfection cattle sera was due to their low content of xanthine oxidase and sustained catalase activity. These data strongly suggest that an infection-induced serum oxidative response, the efficacy of which is amplified by a decline in blood catalase, contributes to suppression of recurring parasitemia in Cape buffalo. (+info)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a key mediator in the regulation of experimental Trypanosoma brucei infections.
In order to evaluate during experimental Trypanosoma brucei infections the potential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the host-parasite interrelationship, C57BL/6 TNF-alpha knockout mice (TNF-alpha-/-) as well as C57BL/6 wild-type mice were infected with pleomorphic T. brucei AnTat 1.1 E parasites. In the TNF-alpha-/- mice, the peak levels of parasitemia were strongly increased compared to the peak levels recorded in wild-type mice. The increased parasite burden did not reflect differences in clearance efficacy or in production of T. brucei-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. Trypanosome-mediated immunopathological features, such as lymph node-associated immunosuppression and lipopolysaccharide hypersensitivity, were found to be greatly reduced in infected TNF-alpha-/- mice. These results demonstrate that, during trypanosome infections, TNF-alpha is a key mediator involved in both parasitemia control and infection-associated pathology. (+info)
Aggregation and distribution of strains in microparasites.
Recent research has shown that many parasite populations are made up of a number of epidemiologically distinct strains or genotypes. The implications of strain structure or genetic diversity for parasite population dynamics are still uncertain, partly because there is no coherent framework for the interpretation of field data. Here, we present an analysis of four published data sets for vector-borne microparasite infections where strains or genotypes have been distinguished: serotypes of African horse sickness (AHS) in zebra; types of Nannomonas trypanosomes in tsetse flies; parasite-induced erythrocyte surface antigen (PIESA) based isolates of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in humans, and the merozoite surface protein 2 gene (MSP-2) alleles of P. falciparum in humans and in anopheline mosquitoes. For each data set we consider the distribution of strains or types among hosts and any pairwise associations between strains or types. Where host age data are available we also compare age-prevalence relationships and estimates of the force of infection. Multiple infections of hosts are common and for most data sets infections have an aggregated distribution among hosts with a tendency towards positive associations between certain strains or types. These patterns could result from interactions (facilitation) between strains or types, or they could reflect patterns of contact between hosts and vectors. We use a mathematical model to illustrate the impact of host-vector contact patterns, finding that even if contact is random there may still be significant aggregation in parasite distributions. This effect is enhanced if there is non-random contact or other heterogeneities between hosts, vectors or parasites. In practice, different strains or types also have different forces of infection. We anticipate that aggregated distributions and positive associations between microparasite strains or types will be extremely common. (+info)
T-Cell responses during Trypanosoma brucei infections in mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase.
We have investigated the possibility that nitric oxide (NO) synthesis may affect the course of a trypanosome infection via T-cell responses using mice deficient in inducible NO synthase (iNOS). Parasitemia levels increased at the same rate in both iNOS-deficient homozygous and control heterozygous mice, and peak parasitemia values were the same in both groups. However, the heterozygous mice maintained higher parasitemia levels after the peak of an infection than the homozygous mice due to a decrease in the rate of clearance of parasites. In iNOS-deficient mice there was an increase in the numbers of total CD4(+) cells and activated (interleukin-2 receptor-expressing) CD4(+) cells in infected mice compared with the numbers in uninfected mice. Spleen cells from infected iNOS-deficient mice displayed increased proliferative responses and gamma interferon secretion when stimulated in vitro than those of control mice. These data suggest that NO production depresses T-helper 1-like responses generated during Trypanosoma brucei infections, thus promoting the survival of the parasite. (+info)
A nucleoside transporter from Trypanosoma brucei involved in drug resistance.
Drug resistance of pathogens is an increasing problem whose underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Cellular uptake of the major drugs against Trypanosoma brucei spp., the causative agents of sleeping sickness, is thought to occur through an unusual, so far unidentified adenosine transporter. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in a functional screen to clone a gene (TbAT1) from Trypanosoma brucei brucei that encodes a nucleoside transporter. When expressed in yeast, TbAT1 enabled adenosine uptake and conferred susceptibility to melaminophenyl arsenicals. Drug-resistant trypanosomes harbor a defective TbAT1 variant. The molecular identification of the entry route of trypanocides opens the way to approaches for diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant sleeping sickness. (+info)