Chemical specificity of the PDR5 multidrug resistance gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on studies with tri-n-alkyltin chlorides.
To understand the chemical basis of action for the PDR5-encoded multidrug resistance transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we compared the relative hypersensitivities of the wild-type (RW2802) and null mutant strains toward a series of tri-n-alkyltin compounds. These compounds differ from each other in a systematic fashion-either by hydrocarbon chain length or by anion composition. Using zone-of-inhibition and fixed-concentration assays, we found that the ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are strong PDR5 substrates, whereas the methyl and pentyl compounds are weak. We conclude that hydrophobicity and anion makeup are relatively unimportant factors in determining whether a tri-n-alkyltin compound is a good PDR5 substrate but that the dissociation of the compound and the molecular size are significant. (+info)
Alterations in behavior, brain electrical activity, cerebral blood flow, and intracranial pressure produced by triethyl tin sulfate induced cerebral edema.
The interrelationships between cerebral edema, intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were studied in acute and chronic triethyl tin sulfate treated rats. Prior to pentobarbital anesthesia behavioral observations were made. ICP and regional CBF were measured under steady state conditions and brain water content was determined by vacuum drying of the right cerebral hemisphere. Control and chronic animals were neurologically normal. There were two distinct acute groups: (1) acute low pressure (ALP) animals - alert but tetraperetic, and (2) acute high pressure (AHP) animals - deeply stuporous, with minimal pain response and gross EEG slowing. ICP was significantly elevated only in AHP animals. Hemispheric CBF was significantly reduced in AHP and chronic animals. The interaction of increased pressure and edema (AHP) produced the greatest decrease in CBF, although deep white flows were significantly affected in all experimental groups. Chronic animals had significantly lower flow in four of seven regions compared to ALP animals despite no significant difference in ICP. Water content was significantly increased in all experimental groups with the greatest increase in the chronic animals. In the absence of any significant increase in ICP, cerebral edema appears to cause a significant reduction in cerebral blood flow and this reduction corresponds with the magnitude and location of the edema. (+info)
The neurotoxicology and pathology of organomercury, organolead, and organotin.
The toxicities of many metals, such as mercury and lead, are known to man since the dawn of civilization. Organic compounds of some heavy metals are known to have a particular toxic impact on the central nervous system. Organomercury, particularly alkyl-mercuric compounds (e.g. methylmercury), has a selective effect on the granule cells of the cerebellum, the nerve cells of the calcarine cortex, and the sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. The well known Minamata Bay disease is the result of a massive epidemic episode of human exposure to alkylmercury contaminated food sources. Mental retardation and other developmental defects are also known to be a consequence of exposure to this toxic metal. Organic lead compounds have been employed as gasoline additives and in other industrial purposes. Unlike its inorganic counterpart, organolead compounds have a more prominent impact on the central nervous system. Pathological changes of the brain stem neurons have been described. Organotin compounds have been used in plastic industries and as agricultural chemicals. Both trimethyl and triethyl tin compounds are found to be extremely neurotoxic. Despite the similarity of their chemical structures, trimethyl and triethyl tins have a diversely different toxic property and effects. While triethyl tin is myelinotoxic, producing edematous and vacuolar changes in the central myelin, trimethyl tin is neurotoxic, producing prominent toxic changes in the neurons of the limbic system (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, etc.). The factors which determine the specificity and selectivity of the neurotoxic impacts by various organometals are still unknown. In view that most of the organometals are still widely employed by many countries for industrial and for agricultural purposes, caution must be made for their proper handling and disposure to avoid undesirable exposures to workers and environmental contamination of water sources and food-chain for the common public. Since organometals are difficult to eliminate from the central nervous system, injuries usually lead to permanent neurological deficits, such tragedies are frequently long lasting and create not only a medical problem, but also a social economical problem for the society. (+info)
Studies on energy-linked reactions: isolation and properties of mitochondrial venturicidin-resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Venturicidin is a specific inhibitor of aerobic growth of yeast and has no effect on fermentative growth, a result which is consistent with its known mode of action on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Venturicidin-resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been isolated and form two general classes: class 1, nuclear mutants which are resistant to a variety of mitochondrial inhibitors and uncouplers, and class 2, mitochondrial mutants of phenotype VENR OLYR and VENR TETR in vivo. VENR OLYR mutants show a high degree of resistance to venturicidin and oligomycin at the whole cell and mitochondrial ATPase level but, in contrast, no resistance at the mitochondrial level is observed with VENR TETR mutants. Venturicidin resistance/sensitivity can be correlated with two binding sites on mitochondrial ATPase, one of which is common to the oligomycin binding site and the other is common to the triethyl tin binding site. Biochemical genetic studies indicate that two mitochondrial genes specify venturicidin resistance/sensitivity and that the mitochondrial gene products are components of the mitochondrial ATPase complex. (+info)
The effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on the composition of nerve membranes, enzymatic activity, amplitude of electrophysiological parameters, resistance to poisons and performance of learning tasks in rats.
Feeding rats diets containing oils that have a low alpha-linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)] content, such as sunflower oil, results in reduced amounts of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3)] in all brain cells and organelles compared to rats fed a diet containing soybean oil or rapeseed oil. During the period of cerebral development there is a linear relationship between the n-3 fatty acid content of the brain and that of food until alpha-linolenic acid represents approximately 200 mg/100 g food [0.4% of the total dietary energy for 18:3(n-3)]. Beyond that point brain levels reach a plateau. Similar values are also found for other organs. The level of 22:6(n-3) in membranes is little affected by the dietary quantity of linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] if 18:3(n-3) represents approximately 0.4% of energy. In membranes from rats fed diets containing sunflower oil, Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in nerve terminals was 60%, 5'-nucleotidase in whole brain homogenate was 80%, and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase was 88% of that in membranes from rats fed diets containing soybean oil. A diet low in alpha-linolenic acid leads to anomalies in the electroretinogram, which partially disappear with age. It has little effect on motor activity, but it seriously affects learning tasks as measured with the shuttle box test. Rats fed a diet low in alpha-linolenic acid showed an earlier mortality in response to an intraperitoneal injection of a neurotoxin, triethyltin, than did rats fed a normal soybean oil diet. (+info)
Peripheral and central nervous system lesions caused by triethyl- and trimethyltin salts in rats.
Both trimethyltin and triethyltin salts are known to produce toxic lesions in the central nervous system. Triethyltin intoxication has been associated with central intramyelin edema, while trimethyltin has been shown to produce neuronal necrosis in selected limbic and sensory regions of the brain. Only scant attention has been paid to peripheral nerves of animals treated with alkyltins. In this study, we have treated rats with 6 or 8 mg/kg trimethyltin, and 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 mg/kg triethyltin (single or multiple exposure), and evaluated in detail at the light microscope level both central and peripheral nervous system lesions. In addition to the central neuron necrosis or myelin edema described previously, both compounds produced peripheral axon degeneration and chromatolysis of large spinal cord and brain stem neurons. Chromatolysis was seen in reticular neurons of the brain stem and ventral horn or spinal cord in rats receiving high doses (6 or 8 mg/kg) of triethyltin, and in these same areas plus mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus in animals treated with trimethyltin. Wallerian-like degeneration of peripheral axons was seen in sciatic and tibial nerve and ventral roots of animals receiving 3 injections of 4 mg/kg or single or multiple injections of 6 or 8 mg/kg triethyltin. Axon degeneration was also seen in sciatic and tibial nerves 21 days after a single exposure to 8 mg/kg trimethyltin. Since myelin edema is believed to be reversible, the axonal changes described here may be of greater clinical significance in relation to human exposure. (+info)
Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental cerebral oedema.
Triethyl tin(TET)-induced cerebral oedema has been studied in cats by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the findings correlated with the histology and fine structure of the cerebrum following perfusion-fixation. MRI is a sensitive technique for detecting cerebral oedema, and the distribution and severity of the changes correlate closely with the morphological abnormalities. The relaxation times, T1 and T2 increase progressively as the oedema develops, and the proportional increase in T2 is approximately twice that in T1. Analysis of the magnetisation decay curves reveals slowly-relaxing and rapidly-relaxing components which probably correspond to oedema fluid and intracellular water respectively. The image appearances taken in conjunction with relaxation data provide a basis for determining the nature of the oedema in vivo. (+info)
Simple inhibition studies for distinction between homodimeric and heterodimeric isoenzymes of glutathione transferase.
Simple inhibition studies in which fractional velocity is measured as a function of inhibitor concentration were used to distinguish heterodimeric from homodimeric isoenzymes of glutathione transferase. Homodimeric isoenzymes from rat, mouse, and human tissues were shown to give graphs of fractional velocity versus the logarithm of inhibitor concentration that were characterized by a sigmoid curve shape and a maximal slope of -0.58 at 50% inhibition, characteristic for linear inhibition of monomeric or non-cooperative oligomeric enzymes. In contrast, inhibition curves for heterodimeric isoenzymes from rat liver displayed significant deviations from these characteristics. The basis for the identification of heterodimers was the finding that the kinetic properties of subunits were additive such that the inhibition curve of a heterodimeric isoenzyme could be predicted from those of the corresponding homodimers. The method should be valuable in the differentiation between the multiple forms of glutathione transferase in tissues not previously characterized. It is suggested that the method should be applicable for discrimination also in other isoenzyme families consisting of oligomeric structures of identical and nonidentical subunits. (+info)