Randomized double-blind comparison of a calcium antagonist and a diuretic in elderly hypertensives. National Intervention Cooperative Study in Elderly Hypertensives Study Group.
Although diuretics are recommended for the treatment of hypertension, decreased diuretic use and increased calcium antagonist use necessitate a comparison of the efficacy of these drugs in preventing cardiovascular events. Patients >/=60 years of age with systolic blood pressure of 160 to 220 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure <115 mm Hg were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to 20 mg of sustained-release nicardipine hydrochloride twice daily or 2 mg of trichlormethiazide once daily by the double-dummy method and followed up for 5 years. A total of 414 patients were analyzed: 204 in the nicardipine group and 210 in the diuretic group. Blood pressure at entry was 172/94 mm Hg and 173/93 mm Hg, respectively, and decreased to 147/81 mm Hg and 147/79 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiovascular morbidity rates per 1000 persons per year were similar in the nicardipine and diuretic groups (27.8 and 26.8, respectively; P=0.923). The sex- and age-adjusted risk ratio for the nicardipine group was 0.973 (95% confidence interval, 0.514 to 1.839, P=0.932). The calcium antagonist and diuretic groups had a similarly decreased rate of cardiovascular events. (+info)
Effect of long-term treatment with antihypertensive drugs on quality of life of elderly patients with hypertension: a double-blind comparative study between a calcium antagonist and a diuretic. NICS-EH Study Group. National Intervention Cooperative Study in Elderly Hypertensives.
We investigated the effect of long-term treatment with a calcium antagonist (nicardipine hydrochloride retard tablet) and a diuretic (trichlormethiazide) on quality of life (QOL) in elderly hypertensives in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative study (National Intervention Cooperative Study in Elderly Hypertensives Study Group). The percentage of patients who experienced side effects was 17.2% in the nicardipine group and 18.1% in the trichlormethiazide group and 2.9% and 4.3% of participants, respectively, withdrew due to those side effects. These results suggested that nicardipine was tolerated slightly better than trichlormethiazide. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of total QOL score or in degree of change (delta score) before and after calcium antagonist or diuretic administration. Lower score was seen in 3 categories (general symptoms, sleep scale, and sexual function) in the trichlormethiazide group (p< 0.05) and in one category (cognitive function) in the nicardipine group, but there was no significant difference in delta score in any of the individual items. In conclusion, the two anti-hypertensive agents had nearly equivalent effects on QOL in the long-term treatment of hypertension in the elderly and that neither resulted in a deterioration in QOL. (+info)
The regression of left ventricular hypertrophy by imidapril and the reduction of serum procollagen type III amino-terminal peptide in hypertensive patients.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are known to be the most effective antihypertensive drugs for reducing left ventricular mass in hypertensives when compared to other classes of drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of imidapril, an ACE inhibitor, on serum procollagen type III amino-terminal peptide (PIIIP) levels as well as the left ventricular mass index (LVMI). The subjects consisted of 15 patients (12 men and 3 women) in the outpatient clinic of our hospital who were diagnosed as essential hypertensives and who had not been treated with any antihypertensive medication prior to the study. Left ventricular hypertrophy was observed in all of the patients, ie., LVMI >110 g/m2 in men and >106 g/m2 in women. Blood pressure, LVMI, and serum PIIIP levels were measured before and after treatment with imidapril for 6 months. The starting dose of imidapril was 5 mg, and this was increased to 10 mg. Finally, 1 mg of trichlormethiazide was added to obtain adequate control of blood pressure. Blood pressure significantly decreased in 12 patients, and the mean LVMI decreased significantly from 153.1 +/- 9.0 to 135.4 +/- 6.3 (p< 0.01) after treatment. The changes in LVMI and PIIIP levels with treatment had significant correlation (r=0.639, p< 0.05). The present study showed that imidapril reduces the left ventricular mass in hypertensives after 6 months of treatment, and that this may at least in part be due to a decrease in the collagen content of the hypertrophied heart, suggesting that serum PIIIP levels are a useful marker of the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. (+info)
Effects of antihypertensive treatment on platelet function in essential hypertension.
To evaluate the effect of antihypertensive therapy on platelet activation in essential hypertension, the plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) were examined in 45 patients with essential hypertension and 20 age-matched normotensive control subjects. Hypertensive patients were assigned to monotherapy with one of five different antihypertensive drugs for 6 months, and the change of plasma levels of beta-TG was reexamined after the completion of the monotherapy. The plasma beta-TG increased in hypertensive patients compared with levels in normotensive control subjects. Monotherapy with each drug resulted in sufficient blood pressure control in all hypertensive patients. The plasma beta-TG decreased significantly after monotherapy with an alpha-blocker or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI). The plasma beta-TG increased with the use of a diuretic but did not change with the use of a beta-blocker or calcium antagonist. The platelet activation observed in patients with essential hypertension is reversed by monotherapy with an alpha-blocker or an ACEI. It is possible that these drugs reduce the development of hypertensive vascular complications due to suppression of platelet activation in patients with essential hypertension. (+info)
Comparison of long-term therapeutic effect of an ACE inhibitor, temocapril, with that of a diuretic on microalbuminuria in non-diabetic essential hypertension.
Many investigators have reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have antiproteinuric effects and retard the progression of renal impairment in diabetic patients. On the other hand, those effects of ACE inhibitors have not been well established in patients with essential hypertension. This study was conducted to prospectively evaluate whether an ACE inhibitor, temocapril, could modify the urinary microalbumin excretion rate (UAE) in hypertensive outpatients who had no signs of renal impairment. To compare the long-term effect of temocapril with that of a diuretic on UAE, hypertensive patients treated with a diuretic (trichlormethiazide) were enrolled in a prospective study if they had normal serum creatinine levels and no overt proteinuria during a 3-month screening period. A urinary microalbumin-to-urinary-creatinine ratio (mg albumin/mmol Cr) was used as an estimate of UAE. Patients visited the hospital monthly to determine blood pressure (BP) and UAE. After baseline observation during the treatment with the diuretic, the subjects were randomly divided into two groups. In group A, the diuretic was switched to temocapril, 2 to 4 mg once daily for 12 months. In group B, the subjects continued to receive the diuretic for an additional 12 months. Seventy-six outpatients (41 men and 35 women; mean age, 59.0+/-1.4 years) with essential hypertension entered the study. The effects of temocapril on BP appeared to be clinically similar to those of the trichlormethiazide, but the use of temocapril significantly decreased UAE. In group A (n=37), UAE decreased significantly (p<0.01) from the baseline value of 4.19+/-0.37 mg albumin/mmol Cr to 2.47+/-0.29 and 2.68+/-0.28 mg albumin/mmol Cr at the 6th and 12th month of temocapril therapy, respectively. In contrast, in group B (n=39) UAE was unchanged (baseline, 4.16+/-0.63 mg albumin/mmol Cr; 6 months, 4.92+/-0.72; 12 months, 4.71+/-0.74). These results indicate that long-term therapy with temocapril may be superior in reducing UAE than is diuretic therapy in patients with essential hypertension who had no signs of renal impairment. (+info)
Tolerability and safety of a calcium channel blocker in comparison with a diuretic in the treatment of elderly patients with hypertension: secondary analysis of the NICS-EH.
A randomized prospective controlled study, the National Interventional Cooperative Study in Elderly Hypertensives (NICS-EH), previously demonstrated that the preventive effect of the long-acting calcium channel blocker nicardipine on the cardiovascular endpoint was similar to that of the diuretic, trichlormethiazide. The present report is a sub-analysis in which we compare the tolerability and safety of the calcium channel blocker with that of a diuretic in the long-term treatment of elderly hypertensives. A total of 429 elderly patients with hypertension were assigned to the nicardipine group or the diuretic group by the double-dummy method and were followed up for 5 years. Two hundred four patients in the nicardipine group and 210 patients in the diuretic group were analyzed. The incidences of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular (CV) events in the two groups were comparable, and there was no significant difference in the cumulative event-free rate. However, the total incidence of adverse reactions, including non-CV events and unfavorable BP changes, was 31 cases (15.2%) in the nicardipine group, which was significantly lower than the 47 cases (22.4%) in the diuretic group (log-rank: p=0.026, G. Wilcoxon: p=0.01). The total number of medical endpoints, including CV events, the withdrawal of the patient from the study, was 52 (25.5%) in the nicardipine group, which was significantly lower than the 65 (31.0%) in the diuretic group (log-rank: p=0.078, G. Wilcoxon: p=0.044). It was concluded that sustained-release nicardipine is better tolerated, as it exhibits a lower incidence of medical-related withdrawals such as adverse drug reactions, non-cardiovascular events and unfavorable BP responses during the treatment. (+info)
A case of exercise-induced acute renal failure in a patient with idiopathic renal hypouricemia developed during antihypertensive therapy with losartan and trichlormethiazide.
Exercise-induced acute renal failure (ARF) developed in a 45-year-old man during antihypertensive therapy with losartan and trichlormethiazide. The antihypertensive therapy was stopped and marked hypouricemia became apparent during improvement of his renal function. The daily urinary excretion of uric acid was normal and an increased fractional excretion of uric acid was observed. Renal biopsy revealed that the kidney was recovering from acute tubular necrosis with interstitial fibrosis. Based on the results of pyrazinamide and benzbromarone tests, we classified this case as one of presecretory reabsorption defect of uric acid. Antihypertesive therapy with benidipine and candesartan was initiated, and the patient has not had any ARF episodes since. Because idiopathic renal hypouricemia can be associated with exercise-induced ARF and chronic renal dysfunction, careful antihypertensive therapy and follow-up evaluation of renal function might be necessary for hypertensive patients with idiopathic renal hypouricemia. (+info)
Clinical experience with an oral diuretic, trichlormethiazide.
The main objective of this study was to observe the long-term effects of the administration of trichlormethiazide on the urine and blood. Fourteen patients suffering from essential hypertension or edema requiring diuretic therapy were treated for periods of one to 12 months (mean 5.4 months). There were no significant changes in urine values, blood counts, or serum sodium or potassium levels. Additional nitrogen retention occurred in two patients with renal failure, but no significant changes in blood urea nitrogen occurred in the remainder. Serum uric acid levels were lower at the end of treatment than before. The blood pressure fell in nine patients. No toxic effects were observed. (+info)