Chagas disease vector control through different intervention modalities in endemic localities of Paraguay.
In a field study carried out in three rural communities in Paraguay in a zone endemic for Chagas disease, we implemented three different vector control interventions--spraying, housing improvement, and a combination of spraying plus housing improvement--which effectively reduced the triatomine infestation. The reduction of triatomine infestation was 100% (47/47) in the combined intervention community, whereas in the community where housing improvement was carried out it was 96.4% (53/55). In the community where fumigation alone was used, the impact was 97.6% (40/41) in terms of domiciliary infestation. In all the houses where an intervention was made, an 18-month follow-up showed reinfestation rates of less than 10%. A serological survey of the population in the pre- and post-intervention periods revealed a shift in positive cases towards older age groups, but no significant differences were observed. The rate of seroconversion was 1.3% (three new cases) in the community with housing improvement only, but none of these cases could have resulted from vector transmission. The most cost-effective intervention was insecticide spraying, which during a 21-month follow-up period had a high impact on triatomine infestation and cost US$ 29 per house as opposed to US$ 700 per house for housing improvement. (+info)
Utility of the polymerase chain reaction in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in Guatemalan Chagas' disease vectors.
For effective control programs, accurate assessment of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in vectors is essential and has traditionally been performed by microscopic examination. For particular vectors and not others, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of fecal samples recently has been shown to be an effective means of detection. The sensitivities of the PCR and microscopy for detection of T. cruzi in different anatomic sites were compared in the two major vectors of Guatemala, Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. Preliminary studies established that T. cruzi can be detected by the PCR in the presence of 90% T. rangeli. One hundred thirty-five vectors were collected, and samples were obtained from the rectum, intestines, and stomach and analyzed by microscopy and the PCR. For Triatoma dimidiata rectal samples, the PCR sensitivity (39.1% T. cruzi positive) and the microscopic sensitivity (24.6% positive) was not significantly different. However, in R. prolixus, the PCR proved significantly more sensitive than microscopy: 57.6% positive by PCR compared with 22.7% by microscopy. Rectal samples showed the highest rates of infection followed by intestine and stomach samples. However, 10.5% of the Rhodnius infections would have been missed if only the rectal sample had been analyzed. Thus, the PCR is significantly more sensitive than microscopy for detection of T. cruzi in R. prolixus. Analysis of anatomic sites in addition to the rectal sample may be necessary for accurate assessment of infection in particular vectors. (+info)
Ecogenetics of Triatoma sordida and Triatoma guasayana (Hemiptera: reduviidae) in the Bolivian chaco.
Triatoma guasayana and two putative cryptic species pertaining to T. sordida complex (named groups 1 and 2) occur in sympatry in the Bolivian Chaco. Using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis, our work assesses their population distribution and dispersal capacity in domestic, peridomestic, and silvatic environments. Our collections by light trap in the silvatic environment indicated a predominance of T. guasayana and T. sordida group 2 and a lesser abundance of T. sordida group 1 ( pound 10% of the total of captures). Their similar distribution in two silvatic areas 80 km apart supports the hypothesis of their homogeneous dispersal through the Bolivian Chaco. The distribution of T. guasayana and T. sordida groups 1 and 2 was similar between silvatic environment and peridomestic ecotopes where 25% of positive places was occupied by two or three species. Bromeliads were confirmed as favorable shelter for T. guasayana but were free of T. sordida. T. sordida group 1 and to a lesser extent T. guasayana would be more invasive vectors for houses than T. sordida group 2. The spatial partition in the three species sampled in two distant sites suggested a reduced dispersive capacity. (+info)
Chagas disease in an area of recent occupation in Cochabamba, Bolivia.
INTRODUCTION: A descriptive, entomological and seroepidemiological study on Chagas disease was conducted in a place of recent occupation on the outskirts of Cochabamba, Bolivia: Avaroa/Primer de Mayo (population:3,000), where the socio-economic level is low and no control measures have been made available. METHODS: The immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used for IgG and IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in filter paper bloodspot eluates from 128 subjects (73 females, 55 males) selected by systematic sampling. Concerning each subject age, gender, birthplace, occupation, duration of residence and building materials used in their houses were recorded. Vectors were captured both in domestic and peridomestic environments. RESULTS: Seropositive, 12.5% (16/128): females, 15.1% (11/73); males, 9.1% (5/55). Average time of residence: 6.1 years for the whole population sample and 7.4 years for the seropositive subjects. Most houses had adobe walls (76. 7%, n= 30), galvanized iron rooves (86.7%) and earthen floors (53. 4%) 80% of the walls had crevices. One hundred forty seven specimens of Triatoma infestans were captured, of which 104 (70.7%) were domestic, and 1 peridomestic Triatoma sordida. Precipitin host identification: birds, 67.5%; humans, 27.8%; rodents, 11.9%; dogs, 8. 7%; cats, 1.6%. House infestation and density indices were 53.3 and 493.0 respectively. We found 21 (14.3%) specimens of T. infestans infected with trypanosomes, 18 (85.7%) of which in domestic environments. DISCUSSION: The elements for the vector transmission of Chagas disease are present in Avaroa/Primer de Mayo and the ancient custom of keeping guinea pigs indoors adds to the risk of human infection. In neighboring Cochabamba, due to substandard quality control, contaminated blood transfusions are not infrequent, which further aggravates the spread of Chagas disease. Prompt action to check the transmission of this infection, involving additionally the congenital and transfusional modes of acquisition, is required. (+info)
Comparison of some behavioral and physiological feeding parameters of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 and Mepraia spinolai Porter, 1934, vectors of Chagas disease in Chile.
There are two vectors of Chagas disease in Chile: Triatoma infestans and Mepraia spinolai. We studied the feeding behavior of these species, looking for differences which could possibly explain the low impact of the latter species on Chagas disease. Both species used thermal cues to locate their feeding source and consumed a similar volume of blood which was inversely related to the body weight before the meal and directly related to the time between meals. The average time between bites were 6.24 and 10.74 days. The average bite of M. spinolai lasted 9.68 min, significantly shorter than the 19.46 min for T. infestans. Furthermore, while T. infestans always defecated on the host, this behavior was observed in M. spinolai in only one case of 27 (3.7%). The delay between the bites and defecation was very long in M. spinolai and short in T. infestans. These differences may affect the reduced efficiency of transmission of Chagas infection by M. spinolai. (+info)
Biology of Triatoma pallidipennis stal 1945 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae:Triatominae) under laboratory conditions.
Aspects related to hatching, life time, mortality, feeding behaviour and fecundity for each stage of Triatoma pallidipennis life-cycle were evaluated. The hatching rate observed for 200 eggs was 60% and the average time of hatching was 18 days. Eighty nymphs (N) (40%) completed the cycle and the average time from NI to adult was 168. 7+/-11.7days. The average span in days for each stage was 18.0 for NI, 18.5 for NII, 30.0 for NIII, 35.7 for NIV and 50.1 for NV. The number of bloodmeals at each nymphal stage varied from 1 to 5. The mortality rate was 9.17 for NI, 5.5 for NII, 6.8 for NIII 4.17 for NIV and 13.04 for NV nymphs. The average number of eggs laid per female in a 9-month period was 498.6. The survival rates of adults were 357+/-217.9 and 262.53+/-167.7 for males and females respectively. (+info)
Anti-arthropod saliva antibodies among residents of a community at high risk for Lyme disease in California.
The role of the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) versus that of other potential arthropod vectors in the epidemiology of Lyme disease was evaluated by determining the prevalence of anti-arthropod saliva antibodies (AASA) among residents (n = 104) of a community at high-risk (CHR). Salivary gland extracts prepared from I. pacificus, the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis), the western cone-nose bug (Triatoma protracta), and the western tree-hole mosquito (Aedes sierrensis) were used as antigens in an ELISA. Sera from 50 residents of the San Francisco Bay region in northern California and 51 residents of Imperial County in southern California served as comparison groups. The prevalence of AASA ranged from 2% for A. sierrensis to 79% for I. pacificus in study subjects, 0% for D. occidentalis to 36% for I. pacificus among residents of the San Francisco Bay region, and 6% for I. pacificus to 24% for A. sierrensis in residents of Imperial County. The associations between AASA and demographic factors, potential risk factors, probable Lyme disease, and seropositivity for Borrelia burgdorferi were assessed for 85 members of the CHR. Seropositivity for I. pacificus and B. burgdorferi were significantly correlated, the relative risk of seropositivity to B. burgdorferi was about 5 (31% versus 6%) for subjects who were seroreactive to I. pacificus, nearly every individual who was seropositive for B. burgdorferi had elevated levels of antibodies to I. pacificus, and the mean titer for antibodies to I. pacificus was significantly higher for subjects seropositive versus those seronegative for B. burgdorferi. Together, these findings support the widely held belief that I. pacificus is the primary vector of B. burgdorferi for humans in northern California, and they demonstrate the utility of the AASA method as an epidemiologic tool for studying emerging tick-borne infections. (+info)
Use of polymerase chain reaction to diagnose the fifth reported US case of autochthonous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in Tennessee, 1998.
In July 1998, the mother of an 18-month-old boy in rural Tennessee found a triatomine bug in his crib, which she saved because it resembled a bug shown on a television program about insects that prey on mammals. The gut contents of the Triatoma sanguisuga were found, by light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to be infected with Trypanosoma cruzi; PCR products hybridized with T. cruzi-specific oligonucleotide probes. Whole-blood specimens obtained from the child in July and August were negative by buffy-coat examination and hemoculture but positive by PCR and DNA hybridization, suggesting that he had low-level parasitemia. Specimens obtained after treatment with benznidazole were negative. He did not develop anti-T. cruzi antibody; 19 relatives and neighbors also were seronegative. Two of 3 raccoons trapped in the vicinity had positive hemocultures for T. cruzi. The child's case of T. cruzi infection-the fifth reported US autochthonous case-would have been missed without his mother's attentiveness and the availability of sensitive molecular techniques. (+info)