The integrin alpha v beta 6 binds and activates latent TGF beta 1: a mechanism for regulating pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family members are secreted in inactive complexes with a latency-associated peptide (LAP), a protein derived from the N-terminal region of the TGF beta gene product. Extracellular activation of these complexes is a critical but incompletely understood step in regulation of TGF beta function in vivo. We show that TGF beta 1 LAP is a ligand for the integrin alpha v beta 6 and that alpha v beta 6-expressing cells induce spatially restricted activation of TGF beta 1. This finding explains why mice lacking this integrin develop exaggerated inflammation and, as we show, are protected from pulmonary fibrosis. These data identify a novel mechanism for locally regulating TGF beta 1 function in vivo by regulating expression of the alpha v beta 6 integrin. (+info)
The activation sequence of thrombospondin-1 interacts with the latency-associated peptide to regulate activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta.
One of the primary points of regulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activity is control of its conversion from the latent precursor to the biologically active form. We have identified thrombospondin-1 as a major physiological regulator of latent TGF-beta activation. Activation is dependent on the interaction of a specific sequence in thrombospondin-1 (K412RFK415) with the latent TGF-beta complex. Platelet thrombospon-din-1 has TGF-beta activity and immunoreactive mature TGF-beta associated with it. We now report that the latency-associated peptide (LAP) of the latent TGF-beta complex also interacts with thrombospondin-1 as part of a biologically active complex. Thrombospondin.LAP complex formation involves the activation sequence of thrombospondin-1 (KRFK) and a sequence (LSKL) near the amino terminus of LAP that is conserved in TGF-beta1-5. The interactions of LAP with thrombospondin-1 through the LSKL and KRFK sequences are important for thrombospondin-mediated activation of latent TGF-beta since LSKL peptides can competitively inhibit latent TGF-beta activation by thrombospondin or KRFK-containing peptides. In addition, the association of LAP with thrombospondin-1 may function to prevent the re-formation of an inactive LAP.TGF-beta complex since thrombospondin-bound LAP no longer confers latency on active TGF-beta. The mechanism of TGF-beta activation by thrombospondin-1 appears to be conserved among TGF-beta isoforms as latent TGF-beta2 can also be activated by thrombospondin-1 or KRFK peptides in a manner that is sensitive to inhibition by LSKL peptides. (+info)
Regulation of transforming growth factor beta1 by nitric oxide.
Many tumor cells or their secreted products suppress the function of tumor-infiltrating macrophages. Tumor cells often produce abundant transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), which in addition to other immunosuppressive actions suppresses the inducible isoform of NO synthase. TGF-beta1 is secreted in a latent form, which consists of TGF-beta1 noncovalently associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP) and which can be activated efficiently by exposure to reactive oxygen species. Coculture of the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and ANA-1 macrophages activated with IFN-gamma plus lipopolysaccharide resulted in increased synthesis and activation of latent TGF-beta1 protein by both A549 and ANA-1 cells, whereas unstimulated cultures of either cell type alone expressed only latent TGF-beta1. We investigated whether exposure of tumor cells to NO influences the production, activation, or activity of TGF-beta1.A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed to the chemical NO donor diethylamine-NONOate showed increased immunoreactivity of cell-associated latent and active TGF-beta1 in a time- and dose-dependent fashion at 24-48 h after treatment. Exposure of latent TGF-beta1 to solution sources of NO neither led to recombinant latent TGF-beta1 activation nor modified recombinant TGF-beta1 activity. A novel mechanism was observed, however: treatment of recombinant LAP with NO resulted in its nitrosylation and interfered with its ability to neutralize active TGF-beta1. These results provide the first evidence that nitrosative stress influences the regulation of TGF-beta1 and raise the possibility that NO production may augment TGF-beta1 activity by modifying a naturally occurring neutralizing peptide. (+info)
Transforming growth factor beta from multiple myeloma cells inhibits proliferation and IL-2 responsiveness in T lymphocytes.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer of plasma cells, characterized by profound suppression of host immune responses. Here we show that MM cell lines significantly suppress the proliferation, blasting, response to interleukin-2 (IL-2), and expression of CD25 by concanavalin A (Con A)-activated or allostimulated peripheral blood T lymphocytes. T cells arrest in the G1 stage of the cell cycle, and do not enter the IL-2 autocrine growth pathway. T cell inhibition was mediated by a soluble factor. MM cell lines did not produce IL-10 but did produce large amounts of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). T cells were assessed for their ability to respond to IL-2 when co-cultured with MM cells in the presence or absence of the TGF-beta inhibitor, TGF-beta latency-associated peptide (LAP). MM cells suppressed IL-2 responses but this inhibition was completely reversed by TGF-beta LAP. A CD25-, IL-2-dependent blast cell line was not inhibited by MM cells or rhTGF-beta, confirming the specificity of the inhibition mechanism for the IL-2 autocrine growth pathway. We conclude that MM cells suppress T cells in their entry into the autocrine IL-2/CD25 pathway and in response to IL-2, and that TGF-beta has a significant role to play. (+info)
Involvement of activator protein 1 complexes in the epithelium-specific activation of the laminin gamma2-chain gene promoter by hepatocyte growth factor (scatter factor).
Laminin-5 is a trimer of laminin alpha3, beta3 and gamma2 chains that is found in the intestinal basement membrane. Deposition of the laminin gamma2 chain at the basement membrane is of great interest because it undergoes a developmental shift in its cellular expression. Here we study the regulatory elements that control basal and cytokine-activated transcriptional expression of the LAMC2 gene, which encodes the laminin gamma2 chain. By using transient transfection experiments we demonstrated the presence of constitutive and cytokine-responsive cis-elements. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the LAMC2 promoter in the epithelial HT29mtx cells with that in small-intestinal fibroblastic cells (C20 cells) led us to conclude that two regions with constitutive epithelium-specific activity are present between positions -1.2 and -0.12 kb. This was further validated by transfections of primary foetal intestinal endoderm and mesenchyme. A 2.5 kb portion of the LAMC2 5' flanking region was equally responsive to PMA and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), whereas it was less responsive to transforming growth factor beta1. A minimal promoter limited to the initial 120 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site maintained inducibility by PMA and HGF. This short promoter fragment contains two activator protein 1 (AP-1) elements and the 5'-most of these is a composite AP-1/Sp1 element. The 5'AP-1 element is crucial to the HGF-mediated activity of the promoter; analysis of interacting nuclear proteins demonstrated that AP-1 proteins containing JunD mediate the response to HGF. (+info)
Requirement of Ras/MAPK pathway activation by transforming growth factor beta for transforming growth factor beta 1 production in a Smad-dependent pathway.
Our previous results have shown that transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) rapidly activates Ras, as well as both ERKs and SAPKs. In order to address the biological significance of the activation of these pathways by TGFbeta, here we examined the role of the Ras/MAPK pathways and the Smads in TGFbeta(3) induction of TGFbeta(1) expression in untransformed lung and intestinal epithelial cells. Expression of either a dominant-negative mutant of Ras (RasN17) or a dominant-negative mutant of MKK4 (DN MKK4), or addition of the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059, inhibited the ability of TGFbeta(3) to induce AP-1 complex formation at the TGFbeta(1) promoter, and the subsequent induction of TGFbeta(1) mRNA. The primary components present in this TGFbeta(3)-inducible AP-1 complex at the TGFbeta(1) promoter were JunD and Fra-2, although c-Jun and FosB were also involved. Furthermore, deletion of the AP-1 site in the TGFbeta(1) promoter or addition of PD98059 inhibited the ability of TGFbeta(3) to stimulate TGFbeta(1) promoter activity. Collectively, our data demonstrate that TGFbeta(3) induction of TGFbeta(1) is mediated through a signaling cascade consisting of Ras, the MAPKKs MKK4 and MEK1, the MAPKs SAPKs and ERKs, and the specific AP-1 proteins Fra-2 and JunD. Although Smad3 and Smad4 were not detectable in TGFbeta(3)-inducible AP-1 complexes at the TGFbeta(1) promoter, stable expression of dominant-negative Smad3 could significantly inhibit the ability of TGFbeta(3) to stimulate TGFbeta(1) promoter activity. Transient expression of dominant-negative Smad4 also inhibited the ability of TGFbeta(3) to transactivate the TGFbeta(1) promoter. Thus, although the Ras/MAPK pathways are essential for TGFbeta(3) induction of TGFbeta(1), Smads may only contribute to this biological response in an indirect manner. (+info)
Transforming growth factor-beta1 is a potent inhibitor of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor expression in a bronchial epithelial cell line. Munich Lung Transplant Group.
Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the major long-term complication following lung and heart-lung transplantation. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from patients suffering from OB, a marked increase in the number of neutrophils and elevated expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 had been found. The goal of the study was to evaluate whether TGF-beta1 is capable of interfering with the expression of the secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), the dominating defence of the conducting airways against neutrophil elastase (NE). The authors analysed the effects of TGF-beta1 on gene expression and protein release of SLPI by cultured human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. SLPI protein levels in the supernatants were quantified with a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; SLPI messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Incubation with TGF-beta1 induced a marked decrease in SLPI protein levels (1 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: stimulation index (SI; protein: relation to SLPI protein release of resting cells)=0.56; 10 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: SI=0.48; 50 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: SI=0.37, p<0.01 each) and mRNA expression (1 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: SI (SI mRNA: relation to SLPI mRNA expression of resting cells)=0.46; 10 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: SI=0.31; 50 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: SI=0.18, p<0.01 each) in a dose dependent fashion. Simultaneous incubation of BEAS-2B cells with TGF-beta1 and NE also caused a significant reduction in SLPI synthesis (10 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1 + 7.5 U x mL(-1) NE: mRNA SI=0.61, p<0.05; protein SI=0.65, p<0.05; 50 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1 + 7.5 U x mL(-1) NE: mRNASI=0.52, p<0.05; protein SI=0.58, p<0.05; 10 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: mRNA SI=0.33, p<0.01; protein SI=0.38, p<0.01). In conclusion, the data suggest that the coincidence of neutrophilia and upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta1 in obliterative bronchiolitis may lead to uninhibited neutrophil elastase activity by downregulation of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor, with the consequence of ongoing injury to the epithelium. (+info)
Activation of phospholipase D activity in transforming growth factor-beta-induced cell growth inhibition.
Cells regulate phospholipase D (PLD) activity in response to numerous extracellular signals. Here, we investigated the involvement of PLD activity in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1)-mediated growth inhibition of epithelial cells. TGF-beta1 inhibits the growth of MDCK, Mv1Lu, and A-549 cells. In the presence of 0.4% butanol, TGF-beta1 induces an increase in the formation of phosphatidylbutanol, a unique product catalyzed by PLD. TGF-beta1 also induces an increase in phosphatidic acid (PA) level in A-549 and MDCK cells. TGF-beta1 induces an increase in the levels of DAG labeled with [3H]-myristic acid in A-549 and MDCK cells but not in Mv1Lu cells. No increase of DAG was observed in cells prelabeled with [3H]-arachidonic acid. The data presented suggest that PLD activation is involved in the TGF-beta1-induced cell growth inhibition. (+info)