Dacryolith formation around an eyelash retained in the lacrimal sac.
A dacryolith was discovered in the lacrimal sac during a dacryocystorhinostomy for chronic dacryocystitis in which there was mucocele formation. Morphological examination confirmed the presence of an eyelash at the centre of the stone and electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of fungi (Candida sp.) in a matrix which was of markedly vairable morphology. The mechanism by which a hair enters the punctum and passes along the canaliculus may be attributed to the step-like pattern of ridges on the surface of a hair. The directional nature of these ridges dictates preferential movement towards the root end of the hair and prevents movements in the opposite direction. (+info)
Treatment of obstructive epiphora in adults by balloon dacryocystoplasty.
AIMS: To determine the efficacy of dacryocystoplasty with balloon dilatation in the treatment of complete and partial obstruction of the lacrimal drainage system. METHODS: The procedure was performed on 26 patients with epiphora due to complete (n=16) or partial (n=10) obstruction of the lacrimal drainage system. A flexible tipped guide wire was introduced through the superior canaliculus into the inferior meatus and manipulated out of the nasal cavity. A 3 mm balloon was then introduced in a retrograde direction over the guide wire and dilated at the obstruction site. RESULTS: The procedure was technically successful in all patients with partial obstruction, but unsuccessful in four of 16 cases with complete obstruction. Reobstruction occurred in eight of 12 patients with complete obstruction, and in five of 10 patients with partial obstruction. The overall success rate was 25% for complete and 50% for partial obstructions. The mean follow up was 14 months (8-37 months). CONCLUSION: Although the balloon dacryocystoplasty is a simple and minimally invasive technique, the outcome from our study indicates that it is not advisable for treatment of complete obstruction of the lacrimal drainage system. Balloon dilatation may prove suitable for the treatment of patients with partial obstruction below the level of the lacrimal sac, especially in those who are poor candidates for surgery, or who do not wish to undertake dacryocystorhinostomy. Even in the partial obstruction group the success rate was only 50%, so that further modification to the technique and controlled studies are likely to be required before it could be recommended for general use. (+info)
Ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome) and T-cell lymphoma involving the skin and to describe the clinical course of the disease with selected examples. METHODS: A computerized diagnostic retrieval system was used to identify all patients with T-cell lymphoma involving the skin who were examined at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) between January 1, 1976 and December 31, 1990. The medical records of affected patients were reviewed. RESULTS: During the 15-year interval from 1976 through 1990, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in 2,155 patients. Of these 2,155 patients, 42 (1.95%; 26 male and 16 female) had at least 1 ophthalmic abnormality attributable to the disease. The diagnoses in these 42 patients were mycosis fungoides in 19, clinical variants of T-cell lymphoma of the skin (most commonly, peripheral T-cell lymphoma) in 11, and Sezary syndrome in 12. Cicatricial eyelid ectropion was the most common finding, affecting 17 (40.4%) of the 42 patients. Thirty-seven patients had findings that, although probably not a direct consequence of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, have been cataloged in previous studies. CONCLUSION: Although ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are relatively uncommon, the manifestations of the disease are diverse and frequently difficult to treat. (+info)
Endoscopy of the lacrimal system.
BACKGROUND/AIM: Until recently, diagnosis of disorders of the lacrimal system has depended on digital dacryocystography and on clinical examinations such as the fluorescein dye test, lacrimal probing, and irrigation. The lacrimal system and its mucous membranes can now be viewed directly with a lacrimal endoscope. While the first endoscopes were rigid and limited by poor picture quality in axial illuminations, the new generation of endoscopes are a great leap forward for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. METHODS: 132 patients ranging in age from 8 months to 73 years with nasolacrimal obstruction were referred to the lacrimal department. Diagnostic lacrimal imaging utilising various small calibre endoscopes less than 0.5 mm in external diameter was performed. The endoscopes are coupled to specially designed lacrimal probes as well as a CCD camera and a video recorder. The imaging was performed during standard lacrimal probing and irrigation in an outpatient clinic setting in 120 of 132 patients RESULTS: All patients reported the pain of endoscopy as being similar to that of standard lacrimal probing and irrigation. No adverse effects such as bleeding or lacrimal perforation were noted. Endoscopic manipulation was not too difficult and the picture quality, depth of focus, and illumination were satisfactory in all cases. The most common site of stenosis was the nasolacrimal duct (59 patients), followed by the lacrimal sac (39 patients) and the canaliculi (34 patients). In 25 patients, partial obstruction, rather than complete stenosis, was visualised as a narrow lumen, which widened during irrigation. In 14 of 28 patients, obstruction was due to canalicular submucosal folds and was removed with laser. In addition, the colour and consistency of the lining mucosa correlated with type of obstruction. Normal mucosa is smooth and light pink in colour. Inflammatory changes manifest as thickened and reddish grey mucosa. More complete stenosis is shown as fibrotic plaques with grey white inelastic membranes. CONCLUSION: Lacrimal endoscopy is a new, non-invasive method used to view directly and localise obstructions precisely. It allows differentiation between inflammatory, partial, and complete stenosis. Endoscopy enables one to choose the appropriate surgical therapy for patients. Patients tolerated the procedure well without any adverse reactions or effects. While it may not replace standard probing and irrigation, this technique is an extremely useful adjunct in determining the proper surgical modality, ease, and tolerance of the endoscopic manipulation by patients, and obtaining sharp and clear images of the nasolacrimal outflow system anatomy and pathology. Differentiation of various types of obstruction by precise location and severity can be achieved. (+info)
Endoscopic laser recanalisation of presaccal canalicular obstruction.
AIM: To document the results of erbium (Er)-YAG laser treatment in presaccal canalicular obstruction in combination with the use of a flexible endoscope. METHODS: For the first time an Er-YAG laser (Schwind, Sklerostom) was attached to a flexible endoscope (Schwind, Endognost) and used to recanalise a stenosis of the upper, lower, or common canaliculus. In 17 patients (mean age 41.5 (SD 11.9) years), 19 treatments (two bilateral) were performed. In all cases the scar was observed using the endoscope and was excised by laser ablation. A silicone intubation was performed in all cases. In addition to the endoscopy an irrigation was performed to prove the intactness of the lacrimal pathway system after laser treatment. RESULTS: Membranous obstructions with a maximum length of 2.0 mm (14 procedures) in the canaliculus were opened easily using the laser, and the silicone intubation was subsequently performed without difficulty. Scars thicker than 2.0 mm could not be opened safely without canaliculus penetration (five procedures). Irrigation was positive in all cases up to the end of a 6 month period, providing the tubes remained in place. The maximum follow up is now 17 months (minimum 8 months) and in 16 cases (84.2%) the canaliculi are still intact. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic laser treatment combined with silicone intubation enables us to recanalise presaccal stenoses of canaliculi under local anaesthesia up to a scar thickness of 2.0 mm. Best results can be achieved in cases where much tissue can be saved. Under such conditions this procedure can substitute for more invasive surgical techniques, especially a conjunctivo-dacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR). (+info)
Comparison of dacryocystography and lacrimal scintigraphy in the diagnosis of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
AIM: It appears from the literature that no standardised examination exists for patients with functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The role of dacryocystography and lacrimal scintigraphy was compared in the diagnosis and management of these patients. METHOD: Patients who were clinically diagnosed as having unilateral or bilateral functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction were prospectively entered into the study and data collected over 12 months in Moorfields Eye Hospital and Whipps Cross Hospital, London. All cases had, on separate occasions, a standardised dacryocystogram with delayed erect films and a lacrimal drainage scintigram. RESULTS: 45 lacrimal systems of 32 patients (mean age 62 years; 59% male) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Abnormalities were detected with dacryocystography in 93% of systems and with lacrimal drainage scintigraphy in 95% of systems. Based on the results of previous quantitative studies, the positive scintigrams were subdivided into those demonstrating prelacrimal sac delay (13%), delay at the lacrimal sac/duct junction (35%), or delay within the duct (47%). Combining the two imaging techniques increased the sensitivity to 98%. CONCLUSIONS: Both investigations are very sensitive at detecting abnormalities in patients with a clinical diagnosis of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Lacrimal drainage scintigraphy is a slightly more sensitive test, but missed an abnormality detected by dacryocystography in two (4%) systems. A combination of the two techniques gives the highest sensitivity with maximum anatomical and physiological information but, in clinical practice, it is reasonable to perform a dacryocystogram initially and proceed to scintigraphy only if contrast radiography is normal. (+info)
Rhinostomies: an open and shut case?
AIMS: To analyse bone fragments from rhinostomies of patients undergoing revisional dacryocystorhinostomy, looking for evidence of new bone formation. METHODS: 14 consecutive patients undergoing secondary lacrimal surgery were included in this study. In each case the existing rhinostomy was enlarged with bone punches, care being taken to use the punches with the jaws cutting perpendicularly to the edge of the rhinostomy, to allow accurate orientation of the specimens. The fragments were examined histologically for evidence of new bone formation. RESULTS: Histological sections showed fragments of bone with variable fibrosis at the edge of the rhinostomy. There was evidence of only very little new bone formation. CONCLUSION: This study has clearly shown that, at the edge of a rhinostomy, healing is predominantly by fibrosis and there is only very limited new bone formation. (+info)
AIMS: To utilise the improved optical qualities of newly developed lacrimal endoscopes and newly miniaturised laser fibres for diagnostic visualisation and laser surgery of the lacrimal system. METHODS: A KTP laser (wavelength 532 nm, 10 W energy) was used for laser assisted dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with endolacrimal visualisation in 26 patients. Bicanalicular silicone intubation was placed in all patients for at least 3 months. RESULTS: After 3-9 months of follow up, the silicone tube in all 21 patients who underwent KTP laser DCR are still patent, three patients have eye watering in extremely cold weather and two required a conventional DCR. CONCLUSIONS: The KTP laser generates enough power to open the bony window in DCR surgery. Precise endolacrimal visualisation via a specially designed miniendoscope is essential for surgical success. (+info)