Pharmacokinetics of bendazac lysine in 10 Chinese young men.
AIM: To compare the pharmacokinetics of domestic and imported tablets of bendazao lysine (BL). METHODS: A single oral dose of 500 mg BL of this 2 kinds of tablets was given to 10 Chinese volunteers of Han nationality in a randomized crossover study. Plasma levels were determined with HPLC-UV method. Data were analyzed automatically by using a CAPP program on microcomputer. RESULTS: The plasma concentration-time curve was fitted to 2-compartment open model, and the major pharmacokinetic parameters of domestic and imported BL tablets were shown respectively as following: Cmax 66 +/- 16 and 65 +/- 8 mg.L-1; Tmax 0.98 +/- 0.22 and 0.98 +/- 0.21 h; T1/2 beta 6.2 +/- 1.8 and 6.2 +/- 1.7 h; AUC 335 +/- 47 and 337 +/- 58 mg.h.L-1. There was no significant difference between domestic and imported tablets. The bioavailability of the domestic vs that of the imported tablet was 99 +/- 12%. The unchanged BL in urine were about 5.4% and 5.6% respectively of the dosage in 24 h after a single oral dose. CONCLUSION: The two kinds of tablets had the same biological effects. (+info)
Generic drug product equivalence: current status.
This activity is designed for healthcare professionals involved in the selection of multisource drug products. GOAL: To understand the basis for approval of generic drug products by the Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVES: 1. Identify the criteria employed by the Food and Drug Administration to approve generic drug products. 2. Discuss controversial issues that have been raised relative to generic drug products. 3. Identify narrow therapeutic index drugs. 4. Describe the different types of bioequivalence studies that are required by the Food and Drug Administration. 5. Discuss the responsibilities underlying the selection of multisource drug products by healthcare professionals. (+info)
Oral bioequivalence of three ciprofloxacin formulations following single-dose administration: 500 mg tablet compared with 500 mg/10 mL or 500 mg/5 mL suspension and the effect of food on the absorption of ciprofloxacin oral suspension.
The oral bioequivalence and tolerability of two ciprofloxacin formulations (tablet and suspension) and the effect of food on the absorption of ciprofloxacin oral suspension were investigated. Sixty-eight young, healthy male subjects participated in two separate, randomized, crossover studies. In study 1, ciprofloxacin as a single 500 mg tablet or as 500 mg/10 mL oral suspension was administered in a fasted state on day 1. In study 2, subjects participated in a three-way crossover study in which ciprofloxacin suspension was administered as 500 mg/10 mL in a fasted state, or 500 mg/10 mL with food, or 500 mg/5 mL in a fasted state. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Standard pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods. In study 1, geometric mean Cmax values of ciprofloxacin following the single 500 mg tablet and 500 mg/10 mL suspension doses were 2.36 and 2.18 mg/L, respectively; corresponding geometric mean t(max) values were 1.1 and 1.6 h, respectively. Geometric mean AUC(0-infinity) values were 12.0 and 11.8 mg x h/L, respectively. In study 2, geometric least squares mean Cmax values following ciprofloxacin 500 mg/10 mL and 500 mg/5 mL suspension during fasted conditions were 1.54 and 1.59 mg/L, respectively. Corresponding geometric least squares mean AUC(0-infinity) values were 7.3 and 8.0 mg x h/L. Administration of ciprofloxacin 500 mg/10 mL suspension, in either a fasted or fed state, was not associated with significant changes in Cmax (1.54 mg/L for fasted vs 1.37 mg/L for fed) or AUC(0-infinity) values (7.28 mg x h/L for fasted vs 8.19 mg x h/L for fed). Each ciprofloxacin formulation was well tolerated for the duration of each study. These studies demonstrated bioequivalence between ciprofloxacin 500 mg tablet and two strengths of ciprofloxacin suspension (500 mg/10 mL and 500 mg/5 mL). Bioavailability was unaltered by food. (+info)
The in vivo assessment of nimesulide cyclooxygenase-2 selectivity.
In man, nimesulide selectively inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with little effect on haemostatic function or gastric prostaglandin formation. It causes significantly less gastrointestinal injury than naproxen, but has anti-inflammatory efficacy similar to that of naproxen and other currently available non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Naproxen suppressed arachidonic-acid-mediated platelet aggregation, reduced serum thromboxane B2 levels by 98% throughout the treatment period and reduced gastric mucosal prostaglandins (PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha) production by an average of 80%. This contrasts with nimesulide: platelet aggregation was not significantly affected, thromboxane B2 levels were only 29% lower and the gastric mucosal prostaglandins were inhibited in the order of approximately 20%. During the treatment period, both nimesulide and naproxen significantly inhibited COX-2-dependent PGE2 synthesis in the whole blood; however, naproxen had a lesser effect than nimesulide. (+info)
Bioequivalence of subcutaneous injections of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (Puregon(R)) by Pen-injector and syringe.
A randomized, single-centre, cross-over study was designed to compare the bioavailability of two pharmaceutical formulations of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (recFSH; Puregon(R)): (i) a dissolved cake injected by a normal syringe; and (ii) a ready-for-use solution injected using a device referred to as Puregon(R)Pen. Twenty-two healthy female volunteers underwent one of two administration sequences: Puregon(R)Pen/syringe or syringe/Puregon(R)Pen, by which they received a single subcutaneous dose of recFSH (150 IU). Endogenous gonadotrophin production had been previously suppressed using an oral contraceptive (Lyndiol(R)). Pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing rate [peak concentration (Cmax) and time of peak concentration (tmax)] and extent [area under the curve (AUC) and clearance (CL)] of absorption were obtained from 20 subjects. After injection with both formulations, serum FSH concentrations reached a peak of 3.4 IU/l at 13 h after injection. The elimination half-life was approximately 34 h, irrespective of formulation. A difference of approximately 18% was found between serum FSH concentrations obtained using the two formulations, which was caused by differences between the anticipated and the actual volume injected with the normal syringe. After correction for injection losses by weighing the amount injected with a normal syringe, the two formulations were found to be bioequivalent with respect to Cmax, AUC and CL. For tmax, bioequivalence could not be proven due to high intra-subject variability and broad absorption peaks of FSH. Both methods were well tolerated, local reactions being generally mild and short-lived. (+info)
Tramadol allows reduction of naproxen dose among patients with naproxen-responsive osteoarthritis pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that in patients receiving naproxen for the pain of osteoarthritis (OA), the addition of tramadol will allow a reduction in the naproxen dosage without compromising pain relief. METHODS: This trial consisted of a 5-week open-label run-in and an 8-week double-blind phase. Patients with at least moderate pain (> or =40 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale) of OA of the knee after a 1-week medication washout were treated with naproxen 500 mg/day for 1 week. Patients whose pain scores were reduced to <20 mm were discontinued. The remaining patients received naproxen 1,000 mg/day for 3 weeks. Tramadol 200 mg/day was added during the third week. Patients were then randomized in a double-blind manner to continue tramadol 200 mg/day or to begin placebo in addition to naproxen. Randomization was stratified based on response to naproxen 1,000 mg/day. During the double-blind phase, the naproxen dose was reduced by 250 mg every 2 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the minimum effective naproxen dose (MEND). The MEND was defined as 250 mg above the naproxen daily dosage at which pain relief was no longer adequate. Patients discontinuing the double-blind phase of the study for reasons other than lack of efficacy were assigned a MEND equal to the last naproxen dose received. If the effect of treatment between the responder and nonresponder groups was statistically different, the difference in the MEND was assessed separately within the groups. RESULTS: Of 236 patients randomized (mean age 61 years; 147 females), 90 were stratified as naproxen responders and 146 as naproxen nonresponders. There was a significant difference (P = 0.040) in the treatment effect between the naproxen responders and nonresponders, thus demonstrating a difference in the way responders and nonresponders react to a decrease in naproxen dosage after the addition of tramadol. Among naproxen responders, the MEND was significantly lower in patients receiving tramadol (n = 36) than in patients receiving placebo (n = 54), 221 mg versus 407 mg, respectively (P = 0.021). For the naproxen nonresponders, the mean MEND was 419 mg in the tramadol group and 396 mg in the placebo group (P = 0.706). CONCLUSION: In patients with painful OA of the knee responding to naproxen 1,000 mg/day, the addition of tramadol 200 mg/day allows a significant reduction in the dosage of naproxen without compromising pain relief. (+info)
No benefit of long-term ciprofloxacin treatment in patients with reactive arthritis and undifferentiated oligoarthritis: a three-month, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of long-term antibiotic treatment in patients with reactive arthritis (ReA) and undifferentiated oligoarthritis. METHODS: One hundred twenty-six patients were treated with ciprofloxacin (500 mg twice a day) or placebo for 3 months, in a double-blind, randomized study. Of these patients, 104 (48 treated with ciprofloxacin and 56 treated with placebo) were valid for clinical evaluation: 55 were diagnosed as having ReA with a preceding symptomatic urogenic or enteric infection and 49 as having undifferentiated oligoarthritis. These 2 groups were randomized separately. The triggering bacterium was sought by serology and/or culture. The percentage of patients in remission after 3 months of treatment was chosen as the primary efficacy parameter. RESULTS: A triggering bacterium could be identified in 52 patients (50%): Chlamydia trachomatis in 13, Yersinia in 14, and Salmonella in 25. No patient was positive for Campylobacter jejuni or for Shigella. No difference in outcome was found between treatment with ciprofloxacin or placebo in the whole group or in subgroups of patients with ReA or undifferentiated oligoarthritis. No difference was seen in patients with a disease duration <3 months. Ciprofloxacin was not effective in Yersinia- or Salmonella-induced arthritis but seemed to be better than placebo in Chlamydia-induced arthritis. This difference was not significant, however, which might be due to the small sample size. CONCLUSION: Long-term treatment of ReA with ciprofloxacin is not effective; however, it might be useful in the subgroup of patients who have Chlamydia-induced arthritis. This has to be proven in a bigger study focusing on patients with Chlamydia-induced arthritis. (+info)
A novel formulary: collaboration between health care professionals, seniors, private sector and government in Nova Scotia.
A novel formulary has been developed in Nova Scotia with the objective of providing quality treatment with needed medications at affordable cost. Creation of the formulary has involved collaboration among health care professionals, seniors, the Department of Health and pharmaceutical companies. This is the first Canadian formulary to use the Anatomic, Therapeutic, Chemical system. Drug listing is comprehensive rather than exclusive. Colour-coded recommendations on use assist physicians with drug choice. Relative costs are indicated within each therapeutic grouping. Listings indicate drugs approved for reimbursement, interchangeable medications, maximum allowable cost, drug identification number and manufacturer code. Treatment summaries provide brief overviews of therapeutic advice. Updates on new products and new or modified treatment summaries are provided every 6 months. The formulary will be the focus of coordinated educational activities on treatment for seniors and health care professionals. (+info)