Mammography and 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography in suspected breast cancer.
The aim of this work has been to evaluate whether a diagnostic protocol based on the joint use of mammography and 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintimammography is capable of reducing the number of biopsies required in patients with suspected breast cancer. METHODS: We performed prone scintimammography in 90 patients with suspected breast cancer, involving 97 lesions. In all patients, the diagnosis was established by way of biopsy. On mammography, we evaluated the degree of suspicion of malignancy and the size of the lesion (smaller or larger than 1 cm in diameter). RESULTS: The results of only 41 of the biopsies indicated malignancy. On mammography, 20 lesions (of which 1 was breast cancer) were considered to be of low suspicion of malignancy, 31 (of which 4 were breast cancer) as indeterminate and 46 (of which 36 were breast cancer) as high. Fourteen lesions (2 low probability, 2 indeterminate and 10 high) were smaller than 1 cm, whereas 83 (18 low probability, 29 indeterminate and 36 high) were larger. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of scintimammography were 85%, 79%, 74% and 88%, respectively. Scintimammography was positive in all cases of breast cancer that initially had a low or indeterminate suspicion of malignancy according to mammography, as well as in 30 cases of breast cancer that initially were highly suspicious. Six false-negative scintimammography studies were obtained in lesions with a high suspicion of malignancy. CONCLUSION: We propose a diagnostic protocol with a biopsy performed on lesions that have a high suspicion of malignancy as well as those with low or indeterminate suspicion that are smaller than 1 cm or with positive scintimammography results. This would have reduced the total number of biopsies performed by 34%. More importantly, there would have been a 65% reduction in number of biopsies performed in the low and indeterminate mammographic suspicion groups. All 41 cases of breast cancer would have been detected. (+info)
Chronic compartment syndrome affecting the lower limb: MIBI perfusion imaging as an alternative to pressure monitoring: two case reports.
Intracompartmental pressure monitoring remains the primary method of diagnosing chronic compartment syndrome. MIBI perfusion imaging is widely available and offers a radionuclear imaging technique for diagnosing this condition. Although the results are not identical with those from pressure monitoring, MIBI may offer a useful screening test for this condition. (+info)
Recovery of contractility of viable myocardium during inotropic stimulation is not dependent on an increase of myocardial blood flow in the absence of collateral filling.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether contractile recovery induced by dobutamine in dysfunctioning viable myocardium supplied by nearly occluded vessels is related to an increase in blood flow in the absence of collaterals. BACKGROUND: Dobutamine is used to improve contractility in ventricular dysfunction during acute myocardial infarction. However, it is unclear whether a significant increase in regional blood flow may be involved in dobutamine effect. METHODS: Twenty patients with 5- to 10-day old anterior infarction and > or =90% left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis underwent 99mTc-Sestamibi tomography (to assess myocardial perfusion) at rest and during low dose (5 to 10 microg/kg/min) dobutamine echocardiography. Rest echocardiography and scintigraphy were repeated >1 month after revascularization. Nine patients had collaterals to the infarcted territory (group A), and 11 did not (group B). RESULTS: Baseline wall motion score was similar in both groups (score 15.9+/-1.3 vs. 17.4+/-2.0, p = NS), whereas significant changes at dobutamine and postrevascularization studies were detected (F[2,30] = 409.79, p < 0.0001). Wall motion score improved significantly (p < 0.001) in group A both at dobutamine (-5.3+/-2.2) and at postrevascularization study (-5.5+/-1.9), as well as in group B (-3.9+/-2.8 and -4.5+/-2.4, respectively). Baseline 99mTc-Sestamibi uptake was similar in both groups (62.9+/-9.7% vs. 60.3+/-10.4%, p = NS), whereas at dobutamine and postrevascularization studies a significant change (F[2,30] = 65.17, p < 0.0001) and interaction between the two groups (F[2,30] = 33.14, p < 0.0001) were present. Tracer uptake increased significantly in group A both at dobutamine (+ 10.9+/-7.9%, p < 0.001) and at postrevascularization study (12.1+/-8.7%, p < 0.001). Conversely, group B patients showed no change in tracer uptake after dobutamine test (-0.4+/-5.8, p = NS), but only after revascularization (+8.8+/-7.2%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The increase in contractility induced by low dose dobutamine infusion in dysfunctional viable myocardium supplied by nearly occluded vessels occurs even in the absence of a significant increase in blood flow. (+info)
Detecting myocardial salvage after primary PTCA: early myocardial contrast echocardiography versus delayed sestamibi perfusion imaging.
The extent of myocardial salvage after primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is variable and cannot be predicted on the basis of either vessel patency or early regional wall motion assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of microvascular integrity, as shown by myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE), as an indicator of tissue salvage and a predictor of late functional recovery, and to compare MCE with the quantification of tracer activity in sestamibi perfusion imaging. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with AMI who received successful treatment with primary PTCA were examined with MCE during cardiac catheterization immediately before and after vessel recanalization. Myocardial contrast effect was scored as 0 (absent), 0.5 (partial) or 1 (normal). Wall motion was assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography on admission and 1 mo later with a 16-segment model and 4-point score. Resting sestamibi SPECT was collected within 1 wk after AMI. The risk area was defined by MCE as the sum of the segments with no perfusion (score 0) before PTCA. Myocardial viability was defined by MCE as an increase in contrast score in the same segments after PTCA and by sestamibi SPECT as a preserved tracer activity (>60% of peak activity). The functional recovery after 1 mo detected by two-dimensional echocardiography was the reference standard for viability. RESULTS: A total of 50 segments showed perfusion defects before PTCA (risk area). Immediately after PTCA, the MCE score increased in 44 of 50 segments, whereas sestamibi SPECT showed preserved activity in 22 of 50 segments. After 1 mo, the wall motion score decreased in 22 of 50 segments (viable segments) and was unchanged in the remaining 28 segments. Thus, MCE showed a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 14% in detecting viable myocardium, whereas sestamibi SPECT showed a lower sensitivity (68%) but a significantly higher specificity (75%; P < 0.00001). The positive predictive values were 45% and 68% for MCE and SPECT (P < 0.005), respectively, and the negative predictive values were 67% and 71%, respectively. On a patient basis, SPECT was more specific (79% versus 21%; P < 0.01) and showed a higher overall predictive accuracy (88% versus 50%; P < 0.01) than MCE. CONCLUSION: The demonstration of microvascular integrity by MCE performed immediately after primary PTCA has a limited diagnostic value in predicting salvaged myocardium. Conversely, tracer activity quantification in resting sestamibi SPECT performed in a later stage is confirmed to be a reliable approach for recognizing myocardial stunning and predicting functional recovery. (+info)
Double-phase 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography and trans-scan in diagnosing breast cancer.
The goal of our study was to assess the value of both scintimammography with 99mTc-sestamibi (SMM) and trans-scan (T-scan) in detecting breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 121 women were evaluated by palpation, mammography, SMM and T-scan. SMM was performed in the prone, breast dependent position. Immediate and delayed views (double-phase) were obtained. T-scan is a new breast imaging method that maps noninvasively the distribution of tissue electrical impedance and capacitance. RESULTS: SMM had 88.9% sensitivity, 88.4% specificity and 88.4% accuracy in detecting breast cancer. SMM had 100% sensitivity in detecting breast tumors >1 cm and only 66% sensitivity in detecting tumors <1 cm. T-scan had 72.2% sensitivity and 67% specificity in detecting breast cancer. It detected one more breast cancer than SMM, at the expense of 27 additional false-positive results. CONCLUSION: Double-phase SMM was sensitive and specific in detecting breast cancer. This method may reduce the rate of negative breast biopsies in tumors >1 cm. T-scan was only moderately accurate in detecting breast cancer. Its addition to SMM did not improve significantly the rate of breast cancer detection. However, because of its complete noninvasiveness, large-scale applicability and low cost, T-scan deserves further refining. (+info)
Detection of focal myeloma lesions by technetium-99m-sestaMIBI scintigraphy.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The tracer tachnetium-99m-2-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (Tc99m-sestaMIBI) has recently been shown to concentrate in some neoplastic tissues, including myeloma. We investigated the diagnostic capacity and limits of this procedure in tracing focal myeloma lesions, and compared them with those of conventional radiological procedures (Xr). DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 55 patients suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) or solitary plasmacytoma in different stages and clinical conditions, or from monoclonal gammopathy of undefined significance (MGUS), by whole body scans obtained 10 minutes after injection of 555 MBq of Tc99m-sestaMIBI. Scans were defined as normal (physiological uptake only), diffuse (presence of bone marrow uptake), or focal (localized areas of uptake), and were compared to conventional skeletal Xr. RESULTS: Thirty patients showed no focal areas of Tc99m-sestaMIBI uptake; this group consisted of 5 patients with MGUS, 6 with MM in stage IA and 2 in stage IIA, 11 patients studied after effective chemotherapy and 6 in early relapse. Twenty-five patients showed one or more spots of focal uptake: all of them had active disease (untreated, resistant or relapsing MM). In the setting of tracing focal lesions, Tc99m-sestaMIBI scans were concordant with the radiological examination in 38 patients and discordant in 17. Among the latter, in 4 cases Tc99m-sestaMIBI revealed focal lesions not detected by Xr, and in 13 cases lytic areas detected by Xr did not show Tc99m-sestaMIBI uptake. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In untreated patients, the number of lesions revealed by Tc99m-sestaMIBI was comparable to that shown by Xr, while in pretreated patients Tc99m-sestaMIBI traced a number of lesions lower than that detected by Xr. The reason for this discrepancy is that Tc99m-sestaMIBI traces only active lesions. Tc99m-sestaMIBI limitations in identifying focal lesions may derive from the dimension of the smallest traceable lesion (about one centimeter), and from the possibility that focal plasma cell localizations in collapsed bone may not be visualized due to inadequate vascularization. Tc99m-sestaMIBI scintigraphy is an interesting tool for diagnosing, staging and following up focal myeloma lesions, in the bone as well as in soft tissues. It is more specific than conventional Xr in identifying sites of active disease. (+info)
Assessment of regional and global left ventricular function by reinjection T1-201 and rest Tc-99m sestamibi ECG-gated SPECT: comparison with three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test the ability of reinjection thallium-201 and rest technetium-99m sestamibi ECG (electrocardiographic)-gated SPECT (i.e., reinjection-g-SPECT [single-photon emission computed tomography] and MIBI-g-SPECT) to determine regional and global functional parameters. BACKGROUND: The ECG-gated perfusion SPECT was reported to provide accurate left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using an automated algorithm. We hypothesized that other various functional data may be obtained using reinjection-g-SPECT and MIBI-g-SPECT. METHODS: Reinjection-g-SPECT, MIBI-g-SPECT, and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3DMRI) were conducted in 20 patients with coronary artery disease. Regional wall motion (RWM) and wall thickening (RWT) were analyzed using semiquantitative visual scoring by each g-SPECT and 3DMRI. The left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes (EDV, ESV) and LVEF estimated by reinjection- and MIBI-g-SPECT were compared with the results of 3DMRI. RESULTS: A high degree of agreement in RWM and RWT assessment was observed between each g-SPECT and 3DMRI (kappa >.70, p < .001). The LVEF values by reinjection- and MIBI-g-SPECT correlated and agreed well with those by 3DMRI (reinjection: r = .92, SEE = 5.9%, SD of differences = 5.7%; sestamibi: r = .94, SEE = 4.4%, SD of differences = 5.1%). The same also pertained to EDV (reinjection: r = .85, SEE = 18.7 ml, SD of differences = 18.4 ml; sestamibi: r = .92, SEE = 13.1 ml, SD of differences = 13.0 ml) and ESV (reinjection: r = .94, SEE = 10.3 ml, SD of differences = 10.3 ml; sestamibi: r = .97, SEE = 6.7 ml [p < .05 vs. reinjection by F test], SD of differences = 6.6 ml [p < .05 vs. reinjection by F test]). CONCLUSIONS: Reinjection- and MIBI-g-SPECT provide clinically satisfactory various functional data. These functional data in combination with the perfusion information will improve diagnostic and prognostic accuracy without an increase in cost or the radiation dose to the patients. (+info)
Influence of a platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist on myocardial hypoperfusion during rotational atherectomy as assessed by myocardial Tc-99m sestamibi scintigraphy.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) antagonist abciximab on myocardial hypoperfusion during percutaneous transluminal rotational atherectomy (PTRA). BACKGROUND: PTRA may cause transient ischemia and periprocedural myocardial injury. A platelet-dependent risk of non-Q-wave infarctions after directional atherectomy has been described. The role of platelets for the incidence and severity of myocardial hypoperfusion during PTRA is unknown. METHODS: Seventy-five consecutive patients with complex lesions were studied using resting Tc-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography prior to PTRA, during, and 2 days after the procedure. The last 30 patients received periprocedural abciximab (group A) and their results were compared to the remaining 45 patients (group B). For semiquantitative analysis, myocardial perfusion in 24 left ventricular regions was expressed as percentage of maximal sestamibi uptake. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups. Transient perfusion defects were observed in 39/45 (87%) patients of group B, but only in 10/30 (33%) patients of group A (p < 0.001). Perfusion was significantly reduced during PTRA in 3.3 +/- 2.5 regions in group B compared to 1.4 +/- 2.5 regions in group A (p < 0.01). Perfusion in the region with maximal reduction during PTRA in groups B and A was 76 +/- 15% and 76 +/- 15% at baseline, decreased to 56 +/- 16% (p < 0.001) and 67 +/- 14%, respectively, during PTRA (p < 0.01 A vs. B), and returned to 76 +/- 15% and 80 +/- 13%, respectively, after PTRA. Nine patients in group B (20%) and two patients in group A (7%) had mild creatine kinase and/or troponin t elevations (p = 0.18). Patients with elevated enzymes had larger perfusion defects than did patients without myocardial injury (4.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 2.3 +/- 2.5 regions, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that GPIIb/IIIa blockade reduces incidence, extent and severity of transient hypoperfusion during PTRA. Thus, platelet aggregation may play an important role for PTRA-induced hypoperfusion. (+info)