New method of estimating myocardial infarct size using technetium-99m pyrophosphate and thallium-201 dual single photon emission computed tomography imaging.
A new method was devised to estimate infarct size using dual single photon emission computed tomography with thallium-201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate. Designating the ratio of infarct area to whole myocardial volume as %MI, the correlation of %MI with other markers of left ventricular dysfunction was examined: peak creatine kinase, ejection fraction and left ventricular asynergy. As %MI correlated well with these markers, it is considered that %MI will be useful for estimating infarct size and predicting the severity of left ventricular dysfunction in the early stage of acute myocardial infarction. (+info)
Uptake of 99mTc(5+)-complexes in ischemic myocardial slices and their dissociable ability.
AIM: To find how some technetium-complexes to deliver the active species, TcO4(3-), to the target tissue from a dissociable polynuclear Tc5+ species in preserved states in vivo. METHODS: Effect of dissociation ability of the polynuclear Tc5+ complexes on their accumulation in ischemic myocardium was tested. Ability of dissociation as having an appropriate conformation to become biologically functional after entering the blood circulation was tested using a simple dilution method by thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. Various degree of ischemic myocardium slices of rat were incubated with 1/100 diluted 99mTc(5+)-succimer, 99mTc(5+)-GH and 99mTc(5+)-PPi. RESULTS: The TLC patterns of 99mTc(5+)-GH and 99mTc(5+)-PPi showed the presence of a fast increasing of free Tc-species as dilution degree increased. The relative radioactivity of peak of free pertechnetate (Rf = 0.85-1.0) with 1:500 dilution was: 99mTc(5+)-succimer 0%, 99mTc(5+)-GH 28.1% +/- 1.3%, and 99mTc(5+)-PPi 46.0% +/- 2.9% respectively. The uptake of the myocardium after ischemia for 3 h was 99mTc(5+)-succimer 420% +/- 110% dose/g tissue, 99mTc(5+)-GH 710% +/- 180% dose/g tissue, and 99mTc(5+)-PPi 1295% +/- 390% dose/g tissue respectively. CONCLUSION: The dissociation and myocardial uptake showed: 99mTc(5+)-succimer < 99mTc(5+)-GH < 99mTc(5+)-PPi, the uptake by the ischemic myocardium is positively correlated to their dissociation. (+info)
Noise removal using factor analysis of dynamic structures: application to cardiac gated studies.
Factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) facilitates the extraction of relevant data, usually with physiologic meaning, from a dynamic set of images. The result of this process is a set of factor images and curves plus some residual activity. The set of factor images and curves can be used to retrieve the original data with reduced noise using an inverse factor analysis process (iFADS). This improvement in image quality is expected because the inverse process does not use the residual activity, assumed to be made of noise. The goal of this work is to quantitate and assess the efficiency of this method on gated cardiac images. METHODS: A computer simulation of a planar cardiac gated study was performed. The simulated images were added with noise and processed by the FADS-iFADS program. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were compared between original and processed data. Planar gated cardiac studies from 10 patients were tested. The data processed by FADS-iFADS were subtracted to the original data. The result of the substraction was studied to evaluate its noisy nature. RESULTS: The SNR is about five times greater after the FADS-iFADS process. The difference between original and processed data is noise only, i.e., processed data equals original data minus some white noise. CONCLUSION: The FADS-iFADS process is successful in the removal of an important part of the noise and therefore is a tool to improve the image quality of cardiac images. This tool does not decrease the spatial resolution (compared with smoothing filters) and does not lose details (compared with frequential filters). Once the number of factors is chosen, this method is not operator dependent. (+info)
Pure right ventricular infarction.
A 76-year-old man with chest pain was admitted to hospital where electrocardiography (ECG) showed ST-segment elevation in leads V1-4, indicative of acute anterior myocardial infarction. ST-segment elevation was also present in the right precordial leads V4R-6R. Emergency coronary angiography revealed that the left coronary artery was dominant and did not have significant stenosis. Aortography showed ostial occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA). Left ventriculography showed normal function and right ventriculography showed a dilated right ventricle and severe hypokinesis of the right ventricular free wall. Conservative treatment was selected because the patient's symptoms soon ameliorated and his hemodynamics was stable. 99mTc-pyrophosphate and 201Tl dual single-photon emission computed tomography showed uptake of 99mTc-pyrophosphate in only the right ventricular free wall, but no uptake of 99mTc-pyrophosphate and no perfusion defect of 201Tl in the left ventricle. The peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB were 1,381 IU/L and 127 IU/L, respectively. His natural course was favorable and the chest pain disappeared under medication. Two months after the onset, the ECG showed poor R progression in leads V1-4 indicating an old anterior infarction. Coronary angiography confirmed the ostial stenosis of the hypoplastic RCA. This was a case of pure right ventricular free wall infarction because of the occlusion of the ostium of the hypoplastic RCA, but not of the right ventricular branch. Because the electrocardiographic findings resemble those of an acute anterior infarction, it is important to consider pure right ventricular infarction in the differential diagnosis. (+info)
Spontaneous development of left ventricular aneurysm in a patient with untreated cardiac sarcoidosis.
A young adult patient with untreated sarcoidosis spontaneously developed a left ventricular (LV) aneurysm in the anterolateral free wall. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using Gallium-67 clearly demonstrated widespread abnormal uptake, including the LV aneurysm. Thallium-201 SPECT revealed a perfusion defect in the anterolateral wall, and abnormal uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate was seen, especially in the borders of the defect lesion. (+info)
Evaluation of salvaged myocardium after acute myocardial infarction using single photon emission computed tomography after 201Tl-glucose-insulin infusion.
BACKGROUND: GIK-201Tl imaging reportedly improves the detection of viable myocardium, so the present study evaluated whether it can detect myocardial viability after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Resting 201Tl and 99mTc-pyrophosphate (PYP) dual single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 201Tl SPECT after 201Tl with GIK (10% glucose, insulin 5 U, and KCl 10 mmol) infusion (GIK-201Tl) were performed in 25 AMI patients within 10 days of admission. GIK-201Tl SPECT images were obtained immediately and 4 h after infusion. Left ventriculography (LVG) was performed within 3 weeks and at 6 months when follow-up 201Tl SPECT was also performed. From 20 SPECT segments, both the summed defect score (RDS) and the number of defect segments (ES) were calculated. The infarcted area was defined as 99mTc-PYP uptake segments. Wall motion was estimated in 7 LVG segments. The ES of R-201Tl (5.5 +/- 2.8), immediate GIK-201Tl (4.0 +/- 2.3), and 4-h GIK-201Tl (5.6 +/- 2.7) were lower than that of 99mTc-PYP (7.5 +/- 4.1) (p<0.05), and the ES had significantly declined 6 months later on 201Tl (3.5 +/- 2.8) (p<0.05). Although the RDS of R-201Tl (11.3 +/- 7.9) and 4-h GIK-201Tl (11.2 +/- 6.3) were greater than at the 6-month 201Tl (7.1 +/- 6.5), immediate GIK-201Tl (7.4 +/- 6.5) was equivalent to follow-up 201Tl. The sensitivity of immediate GIK-201Tl was highest among the imaging methods. CONCLUSION: To detect myocardial viability after AMI, early imaging with GIK-201Tl is more useful than resting 201Tl imaging. (+info)
Diagnostic use of T2-weighted inversion-recovery magnetic resonance imaging in acute coronary syndromes compared with 99mTc-Pyrophosphate, 123I-BMIPP and 201TlCl single photon emission computed tomography.
BACKGROUND: The incidence of missed diagnoses of acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department could be reduced by a new imaging modality. In the present study, the clinical significance of (99m)Tc-pyrophosphate (PYP), (123)I-beta-methyl-p-iodephenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP), (201)TlCl scintigraphy (imaging) and T2-weighted inversion-recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of culprit lesion in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) was compared. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study group comprised 18 patients with ACS: 12 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (11 males; mean age, 63+/-11 years) and 6 patients with unstable angina (UA) (3 males, mean age, 67+/-5 years). Of the 12 patients with AMI, 10 underwent (201)TlCl and PYP single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies as a dual-energy acquisition ((201)TlCl/PYP) and 8 underwent (201)TlCl SPECT within 1 week of the BMIPP study. All 18 patients underwent BMIPP SPECT and MRI. The MRI pulse sequence was black blood turbo short-inversion-time inversion recovery (STIR) (breath-hold T2-weighted studies). The T2-weighted inversion-recovery MRI showed higher sensitivity and negative predictive value than PYP and (201)TlCl, and higher specificity and positive predictive value than BMIPP and (201)TlCl. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for PYP, BMIPP, (201)TlCl and MRI was 0.787, 0.725, 0.731 and 0.878, respectively. The difference between the areas of MRI and BMIPP was significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Accurate detection of culprit lesion is improved by using MRI rather than BMIPP, particularly for patients with ACS. (+info)
Reversible left ventricular dysfunction "takotsubo" cardiomyopathy associated with hyperthyroidism.
Myocardial stunning with hyperthyroidism is rare. A 79-year old woman with hyperthyroidism was admitted to our hospital complaining of palpitations due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. An echocardiogram showed akinesis of the apical wall which was not observed 2 weeks before admission. Cardiac catheterization performed in the acute phase showed normal coronary arteries and no evidence of provocative spasms. The wall motion abnormality disappeared entirely after 1 week in hospital. We report a case of transient left ventricular dysfunction, so called "takotsubo" cardiomyopathy, associated with hyperthyroidism. (+info)