Parametric mapping of cerebral blood flow deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a SPECT study using HMPAO and image standardization technique.
This study assessed the accuracy and reliability of Automated Image Registration (AIR) for standardization of brain SPECT images of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Standardized cerebral blood flow (CBF) images of patients with AD and control subjects were then used for group comparison and covariance analyses. METHODS: Thirteen patients with AD at an early stage (age 69.8+/-7.1 y, Clinical Dementia Rating Score 0.5-1.0, Mini-Mental State Examination score 19-23) and 20 age-matched normal subjects (age 69.5+/-8.3 y) participated in this study. 99mTc-hexamethyl propylenamine oxime (HMPAO) brain SPECT and CT scans were acquired for each subject. SPECT images were transformed to a standard size and shape with the help of AIR. Accuracy of AIR for spatial normalization was evaluated by an index calculated on SPECT images. Anatomical variability of standardized target images was evaluated by measurements on corresponding CT scans, spatially normalized using transformations established by the SPECT images. Realigned brain SPECT images of patients and controls were used for group comparison with the help of statistical parameter mapping. Significant differences were displayed on the respective voxel to generate three-dimensional Z maps. CT scans of individual subjects were evaluated by a computer program for brain atrophy. Voxel-based covariance analysis was performed on standardized images with ages and atrophy indices as independent variables. RESULTS: Inaccuracy assessed by functional data was 2.3%. The maximum anatomical variability was 4.9 mm after standardization. Z maps showed significantly decreased regional CBF (rCBF) in the frontal, parietal and temporal regions in the patient group (P < 0.001). Covariance analysis revealed that the effects of aging on rCBF were more pronounced compared with atrophy, especially in intact cortical areas at an early stage of AD. Decrease in rCBF was partly due to senility and atrophy, however these two factors cannot explain all the deficits. CONCLUSION: AIR can transform SPECT images of AD patients with acceptable accuracy without any need for corresponding structural images. The frontal regions of the brain, in addition to parietal and temporal lobes, may show reduced CBF in patients with AD even at an early stage of dementia. The reduced rCBF in the cortical regions cannot be explained entirely by advanced atrophy and fast aging process. (+info)
Integrated visualization of functional and anatomic brain data: a validation study.
Two-dimensional SPECT display and three methods for integrated visualization of SPECT and MRI patient data are evaluated in a multiobserver study to determine whether localization of functional data can be improved by adding anatomical information to the display. METHODS: SPECT and MRI data of 30 patients were gathered and presented using four types of display: one of SPECT in isolation, two integrated two-dimensional displays and one integrated three-dimensional display. Cold and hot spots in the peripheral cortex were preselected and indicated on black-and-white hard copies of the image data. Nuclear medicine physicians were asked to assign the corresponding spots in the image data on the computer screen to a lobe and a gyrus and give a confidence rating for both localizations. Interobserver agreement using kappa statistics and average confidence ratings were assessed to interpret the reported observations. RESULTS: Both the interobserver agreement and the confidence of the observers were greater for the integrated two-dimensional displays than for the two-dimensional SPECT display. An additional increase in agreement and confidence was seen with the integrated three-dimensional display. CONCLUSION: Integrated display of SPECT and MR brain images provides better localization of cerebral blood perfusion abnormalities in the peripheral cortex in relation to the anatomy of the brain than single-modality display and increases the confidence of the observer. (+info)
Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease: correlation between neuropsychiatric evaluation and CBF images.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various covariants on the distribution pattern of Tc-99m HMPAO in patients with Alzheimer's disease by correlation analysis. Twenty patients with Alzheimer's disease and 15 age matched normal subjects participated. Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT and x ray computed tomography (CT) were acquired for each subject. SPECT images were transformed to a standard size and shape by automated image registration (AIR) and were used for group comparison by means of SPM96. Voxel based covariance analysis was performed on standardised images taking the age of patients, severity of disease (clinical dementia rating scale, mini mental state examination, physical self maintenance scale), and atrophy indices as variables. There was significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions in the patient group (p<0.001), more marked in those patients having severe dementia. Covariance analysis disclosed that aging and severity of disease have a pronounced effect on rCBF, especially that of the left parietal region. (+info)
Comparative study of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO for peri-ictal SPECT: qualitative and quantitative analysis.
OBJECTIVES: Most studies that clinically validated peri-ictal SPECT in intractable partial epilepsy had used technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO or 99mTc-exametazime) as the radiopharmaceutical. Because of some theoretical advantages, technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate diethylester (99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-bicisate) is increasingly being used instead. This study compares unstabilised 99Tc-HMPAO and 99mTc-ECD in the performance of peri-ictal SPECT in partial epilepsy. METHODS: The injection timing and localisation rates in 49 consecutive patients with partial epilepsy who had peri-ictal injections with unstabilised 99mTc-HMPAO were compared with 49 consecutive patients who had peri-ictal injections with 99mTc-ECD. Quantitative cortical/subcortical and cortical/extracerebral uptake ratios were also compared. Subtraction SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) was performed in patients whose interictal SPECTS were available. RESULTS: In the 99mTc-ECD patients, the latency from seizure commencement to injection was shorter (median 34 v 80 seconds, p<0.0001) and there was a lower rate of postictal injections (16.3% v 57.1%, p<0.0001). The cortical/extracerebral and cortical/subcortical uptake ratios were greater in the 99mTc-ECD images (median 5.0 v 3.6, and 2.5 v 2.2 respectively; both p<0.005), but the relative peri-ictal increase in uptake in the cortical focus did not differ significantly (median 37.0% v 37.0%; p>0.05). Blinded review of the SISCOM images were localising in a higher proportion of the 99mTc-ECD patients (40/45 (88.9%) v 25/37 (67.6%), p<0.05), and had a better concordance with EEG, MRI, and with the discharge diagnosis. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-ECD compares favourably with unstabilised 99mTc-HMPAO as a radiopharmaceutical for peri-ictal SPECT studies. Its use results in earlier injections and less frequent postictal injections than unstabilised 99mTc-HMPAO, thereby enhancing the sensitivity and the specificity of peri-ictal SPECT for the localisation of intractable partial epilepsy. (+info)
Attenuation compensation in 99mTc SPECT brain imaging: a comparison of the use of attenuation maps derived from transmission versus emission data in normal scans.
Brain SPECT imaging using 99mTc lipophilic tracers such as hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) attempts to estimate cerebral, cerebellar and subcortical perfusion by assessing the relative amount of tracer uptake among these regions. Most commonly, comparison is made with cerebellar activity. Because the assessment of relative tracer uptake may be rendered inaccurate by photon attenuation by the nonuniform attenuation properties of the head, brain SPECT reconstructions have been compared using attenuation correction (AC) with various methods for estimating the attenuation map. METHODS: Patients underwent 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT with transmission line source AC hardware. In addition to the emission dataset, emission downscatter and transmission datasets were acquired. Iterative reconstructions using three different attenuation maps were investigated. These included: (a) that obtained from transmission imaging, (b) that obtained from segmentation of a reconstruction from a lower energy Compton scatter window and (c) a slice-independent, uniform, elliptical attenuation map. No AC was also compared. RESULTS: Count profiles in patients having brain perfusion SPECT scans showed a significant difference in region count estimates in the brain depending on whether AC is used as well as on the attenuation map used. Scatter-based AC is able to provide external contour detection and attenuation compensation based on that contour, whereas transmission-based AC provides external contour detection as well as internal, nonuniform attenuation estimation and AC. If one considers transmission AC to be the clinical "gold standard," non-attenuation-corrected as well as fixed-ellipsoid, uniform attenuation-corrected studies provided unreliable regional estimates of tracer activity. CONCLUSION: This study shows the significant difference in clinical brain SPECT count profiles depending on how and whether there is compensation for attenuation. Based on prior studies validating the improved quantitative accuracy of SPECT using transmission-based AC, this study suggests that clinical 99mTc brain perfusion SPECT would benefit from and, in situations demanding rigorous quantitative assessment, requires transmission-based AC. Estimating attenuation maps with scatter-based methods was the next most accurate (clinical) method tested and can be used if and when transmission imaging cannot be used. (+info)
Cerebral blood volume in acute brain infarction: A combined study with dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI and 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to correlate the abnormality in cerebral blood volume (CBV) measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI with that in cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimated by single-photon emission CT with [99mTc]hexamethylpropylenamine-oxime in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Nine patients with unilateral occlusion of either the middle cerebral artery or the internal carotid artery (4 men and 5 women; mean+/-SD age, 74.4+/-11.6 years) were studied within 6 hours after stroke onset. The relative CBV (relCBV) and CBF (relCBF) in the lesions were defined relative to the contralateral mirror regions. RESULTS: In the brain regions with mild (relCBF >/=0.60), moderate (0.401.0) regions was significantly lower than that for hypovolemic (relCBV <1.0) regions in the relCBF range between 0.40 and 0.50 (P<0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In acute ischemic stroke within 6 hours of onset the CBV can be either increased, normal, or decreased, depending on the severity of hypoperfusion. The increased CBV has a protective effect on evolving infarction. Although the CBF is a better predictor of tissue outcome, the CBV measurement may help detect potentially salvageable brain tissue in the penumbra with compromised blood flow. (+info)
99mTc-HMPAO regional cerebral blood flow and quantitative electroencephalography in Alzheimer's disease: a correlative study.
In this study the neuropsychological status of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) was correlated with quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) both in the cortex and in deep gray matter structures. METHODS: Forty-three outpatients (mean age 72.4 +/- 7.5 y) with probable AD underwent 99mTc-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime SPECT with a brain-dedicated gamma camera and qEEG (relative values) within 1 mo. Preliminary factorial analysis with promax rotation identified four qEEG bands (2-5.5, 6-7.5, 8-11.5 and 12-22.5 Hz, with no distinction as to topography) and six SPECT regions (the two thalami together, the two parietal cortices together, the right temporal cortex, the right hippocampus, the left hippocampus and the remaining cortical areas together) as the variables with highest statistical power. All these variables and the Mini-Mental Status Examination score (MMSE, a sensitive marker of neuropsychological deficit) were processed by a final factorial analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: Both the 2-5.5 Hz and the 8-11.5 Hz powers were correlated with the perfusion level in the parietal regions of interest (ROls) (P = 0.0009), whereas the 2-5.5 Hz power was correlated with the right hippocampal perfusion level (P = 0.007). The MMSE score was significantly correlated with the perfusion level, both in the right (P = 0.006) and in the left (P = 0.004) hippocampal ROls and in the parietal ROls (P = 0.01); moreover, it was correlated with both the 2-5.5 Hz (P = 0.0005) and the 8-11.5 Hz (P = 0.004) power. CONCLUSION: rCBF (bilateral parietal perfusion) and qEEG (especially the slowest frequencies, i.e., 2-5.5 Hz) are confirmed to be good descriptors of AD severity. It is especially noteworthy that bilateral hippocampal CBF was the perfusional index best correlated with the MMSE as well as being significantly correlated to qEEG. Hippocampal SPECT imaging appears to be a promising index to improve characterization of AD in respect to other forms of primary degenerative dementia and may be proposed as a marker for evaluating the effects of pharmacotherapy of AD at the neuronal level. (+info)
Remote regional cerebral blood flow consequences of focused infarcts of the medulla, pons and cerebellum.
The aim of this study was to evaluate regional and remote diaschisis of inferior brain stem or cerebellar infarcts in 25 patients presenting with relatively limited lesions. Patients presented with medullary, pontine or cerebellar infarction. METHODS: Lesions were evaluated on MRI (0.5 T). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed by means of SPECT, after injection of 9rmTc-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and, when possible, inhalation of 133Xe in the same session. For each method, asymmetry indices (Als), comparing contralateral to ipsilateral rCBF values, were calculated in four areas of each cerebral hemisphere and in the cerebellum and later compared with values obtained in healthy subjects (P = 0.05). RESULTS: Higher rCBF values were observed in the contralateral cerebellum in 2 of 7 patients with selective lateral medullary lesions, and cerebellar Als were significantly increased. When a cerebellar infarct was associated with a lateral medullary lesion, the cerebellar and contralateral hemispheric asymmetries were more severe. Unilateral paramedian pontine infarcts had more frequent consequences on the cerebellum (2 of 3 cases), with rCBF or tracer uptake being reduced in the ipsilateral or the contralateral lobe. Inverse cerebral hemispheric asymmetry could then be observed. Bilateral pontine lesions were difficult to evaluate. Using 99mTc-HMPAO, discrete cerebellar asymmetry was observed in 3 of 6 cases. Pure cerebellar infarcts in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory were always associated with a severe ipsilateral flow drop in the cerebellum, and contralateral hemispheric diaschisis was frequent (3 of 4 patients), predominating in the frontotemporal cortex and subcortical structures. This was also more obvious using 99mTC-HMPAO than 133Xe. Variance analysis showed that hemispheric diaschisis was more severe in mixed brain stem and cerebellar infarcts than in pure cerebellar or brain stem lesions. Furthermore, cerebellar and hemispheric AI values were not correlated with measurements of clinical deficits, disability or handicap. CONCLUSION: Unilateral and limited inferior brain stem lesions can have ipsi- or contralateral consequences on the cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres rCBF. These remote effects are related to lesions of the main pathways joining these structures, resulting in deactivation and, in some cases, overactivation. Contrary to what has been suggested, consequences on cerebral hemispheres are more severe in mixed cerebellar and brain stem infarcts than in pure cerebellar lesions. (+info)