Use of (99m)Tc-DISIDA biliary scanning with morphine provocation for the detection of elevated sphincter of Oddi basal pressure.
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic biliary manometry is useful in the assessment of patients with types II and III sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, but it is time consuming and invasive. AIM: To investigate the role of (99m)Tc-DISIDA scanning, with and without morphine provocation, as a non-invasive investigation in these patients compared with endoscopic biliary manometry. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 34 patients with a clinical diagnosis of type II (n = 21) or III (n = 13) sphincter of Oddi dysfunction were studied. Biliary scintigraphy with 100 MBq of (99m)Tc-DISIDA was carried out with and without morphine provocation (0.04 mg/kg intravenously) and time/activity curves were compared with the results of subsequent endoscopic biliary manometry. RESULTS: Eighteen (nine type II, nine type III) of the 34 (53%) patients had sphincter of Oddi basal pressures above the upper limit of normal (40 mm Hg). In the standard DISIDA scan without morphine, no significant differences were observed in time to maximal activity (Tmax) or percentage excretion at 45 or 60 minutes between those with normal and those with abnormal biliary manometry. However, following morphine provocation, median percentage excretion at 60 minutes was 4.9% in those with abnormal manometry and 28.2% in the normal manometry group (p = 0.002). Using a cut off value of 15% excretion at 60 minutes, the sensitivity for detecting elevated sphincter of Oddi basal pressure by the morphine augmented DISIDA scan was 83% and specificity was 81%. Also, 14 of the 18 patients with abnormal manometry complained of biliary-type pain after morphine infusion compared with only two of 16 patients in the normal manometry group (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: (99m)Tc-DISIDA with morphine provocation is a useful non-invasive investigation for types II and III sphincter of Oddi dysfunction to detect those with elevated sphincter basal pressures who may respond to endoscopic sphincterotomy. (+info)
The significance of functioning gallbladder visualization on hepatobiliary scintigraphy in infants with persistent jaundice.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether gallbladder visualization can help exclude biliary atresia in hepatobiliary scintigraphic studies of infants with persistent jaundice. METHODS: One hundred fifty-two infants with persistent jaundice (49 patients with a final diagnosis of biliary atresia and 103 with biliary patency) were studied using both hepatobiliary scintigraphy and abdominal sonography. Food was withheld for 4 h before the examination, and the infants were fed nothing but glucose until 6 h after the initial injection of (99m)Tc-disofenin or until the gallbladder was seen. If the gallbladder was seen, the infants were fed milk, and imaging was continued to observe gallbladder contractility. RESULTS: In none of the 49 patients with biliary atresia could the gallbladder be seen with hepatobiliary scintigraphy, but abdominal sonography revealed 9 normal-sized gallbladders. Of the 103 patients with biliary patency, hepatobiliary scintigraphy detected the gallbladder more frequently (74%, 76/103) than did abdominal sonography (63%, 65/103). All visualized gallbladders contracted after the infants were fed milk. If we include visualization of both the gallbladder and bowel radioactivity as criteria, the specificity of biliary atresia on hepatobiliary scintigraphy increases to 86% (89/103). CONCLUSION: Gallbladders were usually visible on hepatobiliary scintigraphy of fasting patients with biliary patency. A functioning gallbladder, with or without visualization of bowel radioactivity, indicated biliary patency. (+info)
A simple and efficient method for radiolabeling of preformed liposomes.
A simple and efficient method for radiolabeling preformed liposomes was developed using hepatobiliary imaging agent (99m)Tc-diisopropyl iminodiacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DISIDA). Chloroform extraction of (99m)Tc-DISIDA from aqueous solutions results in 80% radioactivity in the organic phase due to its lipophilic properties. However, with the presence of reduced glutathione (gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly), chloroform extraction results in only 30% of label in the organic phase because the (99m)Tc-DISIDA complex undergoes reduction decomposition to more hydrophilic species by reaction with glutathione. The incorporation efficiency of the (99m)Tc-DISIDA into the liposomes containing reduced glutathione was greater than 90%. The labeled liposomes were stable up to 24 h in saline and 90% FBS after preparation. Biodistribution studies in mice showed that (99m)Tc labeled liposomes accumulated in liver and spleen at 24 h postinjection, unlike (99m)Tc-DISIDA. Compared to hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO), the (99m)Tc-DISIDA compound is much cheaper and has a longer shelf life when used for liposome labeling. The labeling technique described here could be used for monitoring pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes of liposomes, and tumor or infection imaging when coupled with targeting antibodies. (+info)
Comparison of gallbladder function obtained with regular CCK-8 and pharmacy-compounded CCK-8.
This study was undertaken to test whether the octapeptide of cholecystokinin (regular CCK-8) and pharmacy-compounded CCK-8 produce similar results with regard to gallbladder function. METHODS: Twenty patients with suspected gallbladder disease were enrolled into quantitative cholescintigraphy. Each patient was infused for 10 min with 3 ng/kg/min of regular CCK-8 and pharmacy-compounded CCK-8, sequentially, with a 30-min interval between the beginning of infusion. The gallbladder ejection fraction, latent period, ejection period, and ejection rate were measured with both agents. RESULTS: Both regular CCK-8 and pharmacy-compounded CCK-8 produce similar, but not identical, results with close correlation between them with reference to all of the measured functions of the gallbladder. There is neither potentiation nor inhibition of the first dose on the effects of the second dose of CCK-8. CONCLUSION: Pharmacy-compounded CCK-8 functions much similar to that of regular CCK-8 as long as an interval of at least 30 min is allowed between doses. (+info)
Systematic review and meta-analysis: does gall-bladder ejection fraction on cholecystokinin cholescintigraphy predict outcome after cholecystectomy in suspected functional biliary pain?
BACKGROUND: Patients with suspected functional biliary pain often undergo cholecystectomy if a decreased gall-bladder ejection fraction (GBEF <35%) is demonstrated by cholecystokinin cholescintigraphy. However, the validity of GBEF in predicting which patients will have symptomatic relief following cholecystectomy is unclear. AIM: To determine whether patients with suspected functional biliary pain with decreased GBEF have a better symptomatic outcome after cholecystectomy than those with normal GBEF. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature through MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: We included nine studies with a total of 974 patients with suspected functional biliary pain; 362 patients underwent cholecystectomy. Most studies assessed outcome by direct patient interview. Mean ages across the studies ranged from 35 to 47 years; 78% of all patients were female. Mean duration of follow-up after surgery ranged from 1 to 2.5 years. After cholecystectomy, 94% of the patients with reduced GBEF had a positive outcome compared to 85% among those with normal GBEF. The pooled Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio for positive outcome was 1.37 (95% confidence interval 0.56-3.34), P=0.56. CONCLUSION: These data do not support the use of GBEF to select patients with suspected functional biliary pain for cholecystectomy. Prospective randomized trials are required if this practice is to be evidence-based. (+info)
Corn oil emulsion: a simple cholecystagogue for diagnosis of chronic acalculous cholecystitis.
This study investigated the use of a corn oil emulsion as an inexpensive alternative to sincalide in the scintigraphic diagnosis of chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). METHODS: Thirty patients with abdominal or right upper quadrant pain underwent (99m)Tc-disofenin hepatobiliary imaging for 60 min. After gallbladder filling, 30 mL of corn oil emulsion were administered orally to all patients followed by dynamic imaging for an additional 60 min in all patients and for 90 min in 26 patients. Gallbladder emptying kinetics were determined with gallbladder ejection fractions calculated at 30, 60, and 90 min. The results were compared with histopathologic or clinical follow-up data. RESULTS: Corn oil emulsion was found to be palatable and free of side effects in all patients. Seven of the 30 patients had histopathologic evidence of CAC, whereas the remaining 23 did not have evidence of gallbladder disease based on clinical follow-up. The 30-, 60-, and 90-min gallbladder ejection fractions were determined to be 25% +/- 22% (mean +/- SD), 47% +/- 28%, and 62% +/- 29%, respectively. Receiver-operating-characteristic analysis showed that the 60-min gallbladder ejection fraction best distinguished between CAC and non-gallbladder disease with an area under the curve of 0.963. A 60-min gallbladder ejection fraction of < or = 20% had 100% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 88% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 97% overall accuracy for the diagnosis of CAC. CONCLUSION: Standardized corn oil emulsion appears to be an adequate and well-tolerated gallbladder stimulant. Based on receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, a 60-min gallbladder ejection fraction of < or = 20% using this simple cholecystagogue results in high diagnostic accuracy for CAC. (+info)
Biliary complications of cystic fibrosis.
One hundred and four adult patients with cystic fibrosis were evaluated for the presence of liver disease as defined by abnormal liver function tests of six months' duration, histological evidence of fibrosis or cirrhosis, or the presence of portal hypertension, or both. Twenty patients fulfilled these criteria and were evaluated further for the presence of biliary tract abnormalities with biliary scintigraphy using 99Tc diisopropylphenyl-carboxymethyl iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Clearance of 99Tc DISIDA from the liver and biliary tree was diminished at 45 (E45) and 60 (E60) minutes in the patients with liver disease compared with those without liver disease; E45 = 37.8% and 65.8%, p less than 0.01; E60 = 48.2% and 77.5%, p less than 0.01 respectively. Serial analogue images of the extrahepatic biliary tree were consistent with common bile duct obstruction with retention of DISIDA and tapering of the common bile duct in seven of 18 patients with and two of 10 patients without liver disease. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed changes consistent with sclerosing cholangitis, with beading and stricturing of the intrahepatic ducts in 12 of the 14 patients. In all 14 patients, including those in whom biliary scintigraphy had suggested obstruction, no abnormality of the common bile duct was identified. These results indicate that abnormalities of the bile ducts in patients with cystic fibrosis related liver disease are confined to the intrahepatic biliary tree and that common bile duct strictures do not contribute to either the progression or development of liver disease in these patients. (+info)
A noninvasive test of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in postcholecystectomy patients: the scintigraphic score.
The ideal noninvasive test of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) does not exist and the diagnosis of patients with postcholecystectomy pain often relies on invasive procedures. In this paper we describe a scintigraphic test for SOD: the scintigraphic score. This score combines quantitative and visual criteria for interpretation of hepatobiliary scans. Twenty-six consecutive postcholecystectomy patients underwent hepatobiliary imaging, ERCP, and sphincter manometry. Twelve patients had SOD and 14 had normal sphincters determined by clinical findings, ERCP, and manometric studies. All patients with normal sphincter had scores of 0-4, while patients with SOD had values of 5-12 for a perfect sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Hepatobiliary scans scored in this fashion may become the noninvasive test of choice to screen postcholecystectomy patients with suspected SOD. (+info)