Isolation and characterization of proteolytic ruminal bacteria from sheep and goats fed the tannin-containing shrub legume Calliandra calothyrsus.
Tannins in forages complex with protein and reduce the availability of nitrogen to ruminants. Ruminal bacteria that ferment protein or peptides in the presence of tannins may benefit digestion of these diets. Bacteria from the rumina of sheep and goats fed Calliandra calothyrsus (3.6% N and 6% condensed tannin) were isolated on proteinaceous agar medium overlaid with either condensed (calliandra tannin) or hydrolyzable (tannic acid) tannin. Fifteen genotypes were identified, based on 16S ribosomal DNA-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and all were proteolytic and fermented peptides to ammonia. Ten of the isolates grew to high optical density (OD) on carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, xylose, xylan, starch, and maltose), while the other isolates did not utilize or had low growth on these substrates. In pure culture, representative isolates were unable to ferment protein that was present in calliandra or had been complexed with tannin. One isolate, Lp1284, had high protease activity (80 U), a high specific growth rate (0.28), and a high rate of ammonia production (734 nmol/min/ml/OD unit) on Casamino Acids and Trypticase Peptone. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence showed that Lp1284 was related (97. 6%) to Clostridium botulinum NCTC 7273. Purified plant protein and casein also supported growth of Lp1284 and were fermented to ammonia. This is the first report of a proteolytic, ammonia-hyperproducing bacterium from the rumen. In conclusion, a diverse group of proteolytic and peptidolytic bacteria were present in the rumen, but the isolates could not digest protein that was complexed with condensed tannin. (+info)
Antimutagenicity of the purple pigment, hordeumin, from uncooked barley bran-fermented broth.
The novel purple pigment hordeumin, an anthocyanin-tannin pigment, was produced from barley bran-fermented broth. The mutagenicity or antimutagenicity of hordeumin was investigated according to the Ames method, an indication of the safety of food, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Despite the presence of S-9 mix, hordeumin was not mutagenic. On the other hand, hordeumin effectively decreased a reverse mutation from Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, IQ, and B[a]P. Furthermore, hordeumin also decreased the reverse mutation from dimethyl sulfoxide extracts of grilled beef. (+info)
Polyethylene glycol as a means for reducing the impact of condensed tannins in carob pulp: effects on lamb growth performance and meat quality.
We conducted an experiment to evaluate the effects that a diet containing condensed tannins with and without polyethylene glycol (PEG) has on lamb growth and meat quality. Twenty-three male Comisana lambs were introduced to the three experimental diets between 45 and 50 d of age. Eight were given a diet containing 56% of Ceratonia siliqua (carob) pulp (tannin group), another eight received the same diet with a supplement of 40 g of PEG for each kilogram of diet (PEG group), and the remaining seven lambs were given a conventional maize-based diet (maize group). Voluntary feed intake and live weights were measured until slaughter at 105 d of age, and digestibility measurements were undertaken toward the end of the feeding trial. Carcass yield, meat quality characteristics, and a taste panel evaluation were conducted. The tannin-based diet contained 2.5% condensed tannins (DM basis), and lambs given this diet had lower growth rates and poorer feed efficiencies (P < .01) compared with the other treatment groups. Daily gain was similar between the maize and PEG lambs, although the efficiency of feed conversion was highest in the maize group. The digestibility of DM, N, and fiber was reduced (P < .05) by the condensed tannins. Lambs fed the tannin diet had a lower carcass yield (P < .05) and had less fat (P < .05), and the meat had a higher ultimate pH (P < .01) than those given the PEG or maize diets. Condensed tannins affected meat color, which was lighter (L*) than meat from lambs given the PEG-containing diet (P < .01). Sensory evaluation showed that panelists preferred meat from lambs receiving PEG and maize treatments compared with those receiving the tannin diet, and this could be related to differences in meat ultimate pH and carcass fatness. These results show that condensed tannins from carob pulp are very detrimental to feed digestibility and lamb performance. Inclusion of 40 g of PEG/kg diet eliminated the effects of condensed tannins so that lamb performance and meat quality were similar to lambs given a maize-based diet. (+info)
Papillibacter cinnamivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a cinnamate-transforming bacterium from a shea cake digester.
A new, strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-sporulating, mesophilic bacterium, designated strain CIN1T (T=type strain) was isolated from an anaerobic digester fed with shea cake rich in tannins and aromatic compounds. Cells of strain CIN1T were rod-shaped, had characteristically pointed ends (1.3-3.0 x 0.5-0.6 microm) and occurred singly, in pairs and sometimes in chains of up to six. The pH range for growth was 6.9-8.5 and the temperature growth range was 15-40 degrees C. Optimum growth occurred with yeast extract and cinnamate at 37 degrees C and a pH of 7.5. The isolate transformed cinnamate by degrading the aliphatic side chain to produce acetate and benzoate rather than by aromatic ring cleavage or demethoxylation. The position of the methoxyl group appears to be important in the degradation of the aliphatic side chain of cinnamate; consequently, 3-methoxycinnamate and 4-methoxycinnamate, but not 2-methoxycinnamate, are transformed to produce acetate and methoxybenzoates, namely 3-methoxybenzoate and 4-methoxybenzoate, respectively. Crotonate is degraded to acetate and butyrate. The G+C content of the DNA is 56 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of strain CIN1T indicated that it was a member of the low-G+C-containing Gram-positive branch with a specific relationship to Sporobacter termitidis (sequence identity of 88%). The phylogenetic results concur with the phenotypic data which reveals that the isolate is a novel bacterium and, based on these findings, strain CIN1T (= DSM 12816T = ATCC 700879T) has been designated Papillibacter cinnamivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. (+info)
Preferences for foods varying in macronutrients and tannins by lambs supplemented with polyethylene glycol.
Supplemental polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases intake when animals eat foods high in tannins, but little is known about how PEG affects preference for foods that vary in concentrations of macronutrients and tannin. We investigated how varying macronutrients and tannins (commercially available extracts from quebracho trees) affected food intake, and we assessed the degree to which PEG (MW 3350) affected intake of tannin-rich foods by sheep. From 0715 to 1800 daily, lambs were offered diets that varied in concentrations of macronutrients: high energy/low protein (75% barley/25% alfalfa), medium energy/medium protein (35% barley/65% alfalfa), and low energy/high protein (100% alfalfa). Preference for these diets was determined in the absence of tannin, and then, in Trials 1 to 3, tannin was added in increasing concentrations (from 5 to 20%) to the diets with high and medium levels of energy. In Trial 4, tannin (10%) also was added to the low-energy diet. Lambs were supplemented with either 50 g of PEG mixed with 50 g of ground barley or 50 g of ground barley alone from 0700 to 1715 daily; lambs always consumed all of these supplements. In the absence of added tannins, all lambs preferred high energy/low protein > medium energy/medium protein > low energy/high protein. As tannin levels increased, preference for the high- and medium-energy foods decreased, and all lambs preferred foods that were lower in tannins and higher in protein. Lambs supplemented with PEG ate more macronutrients and tannins than unsupplemented lambs, and the effect became increasingly apparent as tannin levels increased from Trials 1 to 4. We conclude that the effectiveness of supplemental PEG may be low if alternative forages are equal or superior in nutritional quality and contain fewer metabolites with adverse effects. In such cases, animals would likely prefer alternatives to high-tannin foods. (+info)
Detection of virus-specific antibody-forming cells of mice immunized with Newcastle disease virus.
The hemolytic plaque assay was adapted to the detection of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in an in vivo, an in vitro system, and a combined in vivo-in vitro system. Several conditions were tested for coupling of sheep erythrocytes to NDV and for the kinetics of plaque formation in the in vivo and in vitro systems. The one set of conditions which provided the best responses is presented. The effect of multiple injections of NDV into mice on plaque formation was optimized. (+info)
Manipulation of the phenolic chemistry of willows by gall-inducing sawflies.
The ability to induce galls on plants has evolved independently in many insect orders, but the adaptive significance and evolutionary consequences of gall induction are still largely unknown. We studied these questions by analyzing the concentrations of various plant defense compounds in willow leaves and sawfly galls. We found that the galls are probably nutritionally beneficial for the sawfly larvae, because the concentrations of most defensive phenolics are substantially lower in gall interiors than in leaves. More importantly, changes in chemistry occur in a similar coordinated pattern in all studied willow species, which suggests that the insects control the phenolic biosynthesis in their hosts. The resulting convergence of the chemical properties of the galls both within and between host species indicates that the role of plant chemistry in the evolution of host shifts may be fundamentally less significant in gallers than in other phytophagous insects. (+info)
Effects of pH and light on the storage stability of the purple pigment, hordeumin, from uncooked barley bran fermented broth.
The pigment retention rate of hordeumin was higher than that of two standard anthocyanidins, cyanidin and delphinidin, when hordeumin and anthocyanidins were dissolved in Walpole buffer (pH 1.0) and stored. Moreover, when pigment solutions were stored at 15 degrees C under light irradiation, the pigment retention rate of the hordeumin solution became higher than those of standard anthocyanidins (2 to 10 times) as the storage period increased. Comparing various pH buffers (MacIlvaine buffer, pH 2.2 to 7.0), the pigment retention rate of hordeumin at pH 5.0 was highest. Furthermore, the half-life of hordeumin at pH 5.0 was increased from 9 days to 17.5 days when nitrogen gas was bubbled into the hordeumin solution. We considered that the storage stability of hordeumin is higher than standard anthocyanidins because hordeumin is a complex with anthocyanin, tannin, and protein. (+info)