Toxic oil syndrome mortality: the first 13 years.
BACKGROUND: The toxic oil syndrome (TOS) epidemic that occurred in Spain in the spring of 1981 caused approximately 20000 cases of a new illness. Overall mortality and mortality by cause in this cohort through 1994 are described for the first time in this report. METHODS: We contacted, via mail or telephone, almost every living member of the cohort and family members of those who were known to have died in order to identify all deaths from 1 May 1981 through 31 December 1994. Cause of death data were collected from death certificates and underlying causes of death were coded using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. RESULTS: We identified 1663 deaths between 1 May 1981 and 31 December 1994 among 19 754 TOS cohort members, for a crude mortality rate of 8.4%. Mortality was highest during 1981, with a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 4.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.39-5.50) compared with the Spanish population as a whole. The highest SMR, (20.41, 95% CI: 15.97-25.71) was seen among women aged 20-39 years during the period from 1 May 1981 through 31 December 1982. Women <40 years old, who were affected by TOS , were at greater risk for death in most time periods than their unaffected peers, while older women and men were not. Over the follow-up period, mortality of the cohort was less than expected when compared with mortality of the general Spanish population, or with mortality of the population of the 14 provinces where the epidemic occurred. We also found that, except for deaths attributed to external causes including TOS and deaths due to pulmonary hypertension, all causes of death were decreased in TOS patients compared to the Spanish population. The most frequent underlying causes of death were TOS, 350 (21.1%); circulatory disorders, 536 (32.3%); and malignancies, 310 (18.7%). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that while on average people affected by toxic oil syndrome are not at greater risk for death over the 13-year study period than any of the comparison groups, women <40 years old were at greater risk of death. (+info)
Family study of inherited syndrome with multiple congenital deformities: symphalangism, carpal and tarsal fusion, brachydactyly, craniosynostosis, strabismus, hip osteochondritis.
A syndrome of brachydactyly (absence of some middle or distal phalanges), aplastic or hypoplastic nails, symphalangism (ankylois of proximal interphalangeal joints), synostosis of some carpal and tarsal bones, craniosynostosis, and dysplastic hip joints is reported in five members of an Italian family. It may represent a previously undescribed autosomal dominant trait. (+info)
Why is the retention of gonadotrophin secretion common in children with panhypopituitarism due to septo-optic dysplasia?
Septo-optic dysplasia (De Morsier syndrome) is a developmental anomaly of mid-line brain structures and includes optic nerve hypoplasia, absence of the septum pellucidum and hypothalamo-pituitary abnormalities. We describe seven patients (four female, three male) who had at least two out of the three features necessary for the diagnosis of septo-optic dysplasia. Four patients had hypopituitarism and yet normal gonadotrophin secretion: one of these also had anti-diuretic hormone insufficiency; three had isolated GH deficiency and yet had premature puberty, with the onset of puberty at least a year earlier than would have been expected for their bone age. In any progressive and evolving anterior pituitary lesion it is extremely unusual to lose corticotrophin-releasing hormone/ACTH and TRH/TSH secretion and yet to retain gonadotrophin secretion. GnRH neurons develop in the nasal mucosa and migrate to the hypothalamus in early fetal life. We hypothesise that the arrival of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus after the development of a midline hypothalamic defect may explain these phenomena. Progress in spontaneous/premature puberty in children with De Morsier syndrome may have important implications for management. The combination of GH deficiency and premature puberty may allow an apparently normal growth rate but with an inappropriately advanced bone age resulting in impaired final stature. GnRH analogues may be a therapeutic option. In conclusion, some patients with De Morsier syndrome appear to retain the ability to secrete gonadotrophins in the face of loss of other hypothalamic releasing factors. The migration of GnRH neurons after the development of the midline defect may be an explanation. (+info)
Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with multiple malformations and variable expression. Major findings include external ear anomalies, hearing loss, preaxial polydactyly and triphalangeal thumbs, imperforate anus, and renal malformations. Most patients with Townes-Brocks syndrome have normal intelligence, although mental retardation has been noted in a few. (+info)
A new lethal syndrome of exomphalos, short limbs, and macrogonadism.
We report a new lethal multiple congenital abnormality (MCA) syndrome of exomphalos, short limbs, nuchal web, macrogonadism, and facial dysmorphism in seven fetuses (six males and one female) belonging to three unrelated families. X rays showed enlarged and irregular metaphyses with a heterogeneous pattern of mineralisation of the long bones. Pathological examination showed adrenal cytomegaly, hyperplasia of Leydig cells, ovarian stroma cells, and Langherans cells, and renal microcysts. We suggest that this condition is a new autosomal recessive MCA syndrome different from Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, especially as no infracytogenetic deletion or uniparental disomy of chromosome 11 was found. (+info)
A new X linked neurodegenerative syndrome with mental retardation, blindness, convulsions, spasticity, mild hypomyelination, and early death maps to the pericentromeric region.
We report on a family with an X linked neurodegenerative disorder consisting of mental retardation, blindness, convulsions, spasticity, and early death. Neuropathological examination showed mild hypomyelination. By linkage analysis, the underlying genetic defect could be assigned to the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome with a maximum lod score of 3.30 at theta=0.0 for the DXS1204 locus with DXS337 and PGK1P1 as flanking markers. (+info)
Homozygosity mapping to the USH2A locus in two isolated populations.
Usher syndrome is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterised by progressive visual loss from retinitis pigmentosa and moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Usher syndrome is estimated to account for 6-10% of all congenital sensorineural hearing loss. A gene locus in Usher type II (USH2) families has been assigned to a small region on chromosome 1q41 called the UHS2A locus. We have investigated two families with Usher syndrome from different isolated populations. One family is a Norwegian Saami family and the second family is from the Cayman Islands. They both come from relatively isolated populations and are inbred families suitable for linkage analysis. A lod score of 3.09 and 7.65 at zero recombination was reached respectively in the two families with two point linkage analysis to the USH2A locus on 1q41. Additional homozygosity mapping of the affected subjects concluded with a candidate region of 6.1 Mb. This region spans the previously published candidate region in USH2A. Our study emphasises that the mapped gene for USH2 is also involved in patients from other populations and will have implications for future mutation analysis once the USH2A gene is cloned. (+info)
Ataxia, ocular telangiectasia, chromosome instability, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a patient with an unknown breakage syndrome.
An 8 year old boy who had Langerhans cell histiocytosis when he was 15 months old showed psychomotor regression from the age of 2 years. Microcephaly, severe growth deficiency, and ocular telangiectasia were also evident. Magnetic nuclear resonance imaging showed cerebellar atrophy. Alphafetoprotein was increased. Chromosome instability after x irradiation and rearrangements involving chromosome 7 were found. Molecular study failed to show mutations involving the ataxia-telangiectasia gene. This patient has a clinical picture which is difficult to relate to a known breakage syndrome. Also, the relationship between the clinical phenotype and histiocytosis is unclear. (+info)