Molecular markers and cell cycle inhibitors show the importance of cell cycle progression in nematode-induced galls and syncytia.
Root knot and cyst nematodes induce large multinucleated cells, designated giant cells and syncytia, respectively, in plant roots. We have used molecular markers to study cell cycle progression in these specialized feeding cells. In situ hybridization with two cyclin-dependent kinases and two cyclins showed that these genes were induced very early in galls and syncytia and that the feeding cells progressed through the G2 phase. By using cell cycle blockers, DNA synthesis and progression through the G2 phase, or mitosis, were shown to be essential for gall and syncytium establishment. When mitosis was blocked, further gall development was arrested. This result demonstrates that cycles of endoreduplication or other methods of DNA amplification are insufficient to drive giant cell expansion. On the other hand, syncytium development was much less affected by a mitotic block; however, syncytium expansion was inhibited. (+info)
Separation of M-like current and ERG current in NG108-15 cells.
Differentiated NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells were whole-cell voltage-clamped. Hyperpolarizing pulses, superimposed on a depolarized holding potential (-30 or -20 mV), elicited deactivation currents which consisted of two components, distinguishable by fitting with two exponential functions. Linopirdine [DuP 996, 3,3-bis(4-pyridinylmethyl)-1-phenylindolin-2-one), a neurotransmitter-release enhancer known as potent and selective blocker of the M-current of rat sympathetic neurons, in concentrations of 5 or 10 microM selectively inhibited the fast component (IC50 = 14.7 microM). The slow component was less sensitive to linopirdine (IC50>20 microM). The class III antiarrhythmics [(4-methylsulphonyl)amido]benzenesulphonamide (WAY-123.398) and 1-[2-(6-methyl-2-pyrydinil)ethyl]-4-(4-methylsulphonylaminobenz oyl) piperidine (E-4031), selective inhibitors of the inwardly rectifying ERG (ether-a-go-go-related gene) potassium channel, inhibited predominantly the slow component (IC50 = 38 nM for E-4031). The time constant of the WAY-123.398-sensitive current resembled the time constant of the slow component in size and voltage dependence. Inwardly rectifying ERG currents, recorded in K+ -rich bath at strongly negative pulse potentials, resembled the slow component of the deactivation current in their low sensitivity to linopirdine (28% inhibition at 50 microM). The size of the slow component varied greatly between cells. Accordingly, varied the effect of WAY-123.398 on deactivation current and holding current. RNA transcripts for the following members of the ether-a-go-go gene (EAG) K+ channel family were found in differentiated NG108-15 cells: ERG1, ERG2, EAGI, EAG-like (ELK)1, ELK2; ERG3 was only present in non-differentiated cells. In addition, RNA transcripts for KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 were found in differentiated and non-differentiated cells. We conclude that the fast component of the deactivation current is M-like current and the slow component is deactivating ERG current. The molecular correlates are probably KCNQ2/KCNQ3 and ERG1/ERG2, respectively. (+info)
Two types of K(+) channel subunit, Erg1 and KCNQ2/3, contribute to the M-like current in a mammalian neuronal cell.
The potassium M current was originally identified in sympathetic ganglion cells, and analogous currents have been reported in some central neurons and also in some neural cell lines. It has recently been suggested that the M channel in sympathetic neurons comprises a heteromultimer of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 (Wang et al., 1998) but it is unclear whether all other M-like currents are generated by these channels. Here we report that the M-like current previously described in NG108-15 mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma cells has two components, "fast" and "slow", that may be differentiated kinetically and pharmacologically. We provide evidence from PCR analysis and expression studies to indicate that these two components are mediated by two distinct molecular species of K(+) channel: the fast component resembles that in sympathetic ganglia and is probably carried by KCNQ2/3 channels, whereas the slow component appears to be carried by merg1a channels. Thus, the channels generating M-like currents in different cells may be heterogeneous in molecular composition. (+info)
Indomethacin-induced G1/S phase arrest of the plant cell cycle.
In animal systems, indomethacin inhibits cAMP production via a prostaglandin-adenylyl cyclase pathway. To examine the possibility that a similar mechanism occurs in plants, the effect of indomethacin on the cell cycle of a tobacco bright yellow 2 (TBY-2) cell suspension was studied. Application of indomethacin during mitosis did not interfere with the M/G1 progression in synchronized BY-2 cells but it inhibited cAMP production at the beginning of the G1 phase and arrested the cell cycle progression at G1/S. These observations are discussed in relation to the putative involvement of cAMP biosynthesis in the cell cycle progression in TBY-2 cells. (+info)
Microtubules, but not actin filaments, drive daughter cell budding and cell division in Toxoplasma gondii.
We have used drugs to examine the role(s) of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in the intracellular growth and replication of the intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. By using a 5 minute infection period and adding the drugs shortly after entry we can treat parasites at the start of intracellular development and 6-8 hours prior to the onset of daughter cell budding. Using this approach we found, somewhat surprisingly, that reagents that perturb the actin cytoskeleton in different ways (cytochalasin D, latrunculin A and jasplakinolide) had little effect on parasite replication although they had the expected effects on the host cells. These actin inhibitors did, however, disrupt the orderly turnover of the mother cell organelles leading to the formation of a large residual body at the posterior end of each pair of budding parasites. Treating established parasite cultures with the actin inhibitors blocked ionophore-induced egression of tachyzoites from the host cells, demonstrating that intracellular parasites were susceptible to the effects of these inhibitors. In contrast, the anti-microtubule drugs oryzalin and taxol, and to a much lesser extent nocodazole, which affect microtubule dynamics in different ways, blocked parasite replication by disrupting the normal assembly of the apical conoid and the microtubule inner membrane complex (IMC) in the budding daughter parasites. Centrosome replication and assembly of intranuclear spindles, however, occurred normally. Thus, daughter cell budding per se is dependent primarily on the parasite microtubule system and does not require a dynamic actin cytoskeleton, although disruption of actin dynamics causes problems in the turnover of parasite organelles. (+info)
Microtubule stabilization leads to growth reorientation in Arabidopsis trichomes.
The single-cell trichomes in wild-type Arabidopsis are either unbranched or have two to five branches. Using transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein4 fusion protein, which decorates the microtubular cytoskeleton, we observed that during trichome branching, microtubules reorient with respect to the longitudinal growth axis. Considering branching to be a localized microtubule-dependent growth reorientation event, we investigated the effects of microtubule-interacting drugs on branch induction in trichomes. In unbranched trichomes of the mutant stichel, a change in growth directionality, closely simulating branch initiation, could be elicited by a short treatment with paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, but not with microtubule-disrupting drugs. The growth reorientation appeared to be linked to increased microtubule stabilization and to aster formation in the treated trichomes. Taxol-induced microtubule stabilization also led to the initiation of new branch points in the zwichel mutant of Arabidopsis, which is defective in a kinesin-like microtubule motor protein and possesses trichomes that are less branched. Our observations suggest that trichome cell branching in Arabidopsis might be mediated by transiently stabilized microtubular structures, which may form a component of a multiprotein complex required to reorient freshly polymerizing microtubules into new growth directions. (+info)
Effect of sulfadoxine on transmission of Vibrio cholerae infection among family contacts of cholera patients in Calcutta.
Sulfadoxine, a long-acting sulfonamide, and tetracycline were compared as regards their effectiveness in reducing transmission of cholera infection among the contacts of cholera patients in Calcutta. A total of 109 healthy family contacts of confirmed hospitalized cholera patients were treated with a single oral dose of sulfadoxine graded according to age. Another similar group of 101 contacts received 6 divided doses of oral tetracycline over a period of 3 days. All these contacts were bacteriologically examined for 15 days. Results showed that tetracycline was effective in significantly reducing the load of cholera infection from the 2nd to 6th day, while sulfadoxine was effective from the 3rd to the 6th day. The advantages and disadvantages of the two drugs as chemoprophylactic agents in cholera are discussed. (+info)
Falciparum malaria cured by quinine followed by sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.
Quinine (at least four doses given at intervals of eight to 12 hours) followed by a single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Fansidar) is the most effective treatment of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. This regimen cured 96% of patients (302 out of 314) with an average initial parasite count of 90 X 10-9/1. (+info)