Relationship between activity levels, aerobic fitness, and body fat in 8- to 10-yr-old children.
The relationships between children's activity, aerobic fitness, and fatness are unclear. Indirect estimates of activity, e.g., heart rate (HR) and recall, may mask any associations. The purpose of this study was to assess these relationships by using the Tritrac-R3D, a pedometer, and heart rate. Thirty-four children, ages 8-10 yr, participated in the study. The Tritrac and pedometer were worn for up to 6 days. HR was measured for 1 day. Activity measured by Tritrac or pedometer correlated positively to fitness in the whole group (Tritrac, r = 0.66; pedometer, r = 0.59; P < 0.01) and in boys and girls separately (P < 0.05) and correlated negatively to fatness in the whole group (r = -0.42, P < 0.05). In contrast, HR did not correlate significantly to fitness, and HR of >139 beats/min correlated positively to fatness in girls (r = 0.64, P < 0.05). This suggests that HR is misleading as a measure of activity. This study supports a positive relationship between activity and fitness and suggests a negative relationship between fatness and activity. (+info)
An intervention to reduce playground equipment hazards.
OBJECTIVES: A community intervention trial was carried out to evaluate the relative effectiveness of two methods of reducing playground hazards in schools. The study hypotheses were: (1) a health promotion programme addressing barriers to implementing the New Zealand Playground Safety Standard will reduce playground hazards and (2) the intervention programme will be more successful than providing information alone. METHODS: Twenty four schools in Wellington, New Zealand were randomly allocated into two groups of 12 and their playgrounds audited for hazards. After the audit, the intervention group received a health promotion programme consisting of information about the hazards, an engineer's report, regular contact and encouragement to act on the report, and assistance in obtaining funding. The control group only received information about hazards in their playground. RESULTS: After 19 months, there was a significant fall in hazards in the intervention schools compared with the control schools (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.027). No intervention schools had increased hazards and eight out of 12 had reduced them by at least three. In contrast, only two of the control schools had reduced their hazards by this amount, with three others increasing their hazards in that time. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that working intensively with schools to overcome barriers to upgrading playground equipment can lead to a reduction in hazards, and that this form of intensive intervention is more effective than providing information alone. (+info)
Physiological changes in Pachinko players; beta-endorphin, catecholamines, immune system substances and heart rate.
Pachinko is a popular form of recreation in Japan. However, in recent years, along with Pachinko's popularity, "Pachinko dependence" has become topical news. The purpose of this study was to investigate beta-endorphin, catecholamines, immune system responses and heart rate during the playing of Pachinko. The following significant results were observed. (1) Plasma concentration of beta-endorphin increased before playing Pachinko and while in the Pachinko-center (p < 0.05). (2) Beta-endorphin and norepinephrine increased when the player began to win (i.e. at "Fever-start") compared to baseline (p < 0.05). (3) Beta-endorphin, norepinephrine and dopamine increased when the winning streak finished (i.e. at "Fever-end") compared to baseline (p < 0.05-0.01). (4) Norepinephrine increased past 30 minutes after "Fever-end" compared to baseline (p < 0.05). (5) Heart rate increased before "Fever-start" compared to baseline, peaked at "Fever-start" and rapidly decreased to match rates measured at rest. But the increase was observed from 200 seconds after "Fever-start" (p < 0.05-0.001). (6) There was a positive correlation between the number of hours subjects played Pachinko in a week and the differences between beta-endorphin levels at "Fever-start" and those at rest (p < 0.05). (7) The number of T-cells decreased while the number of NK cells increased at "Fever-start" compared to baseline (p < .05). These results suggest that intracerebral substances such as beta-endorphin and dopamine are involved in the habit-forming behavior associated with Pachinko. (+info)
Play: early and eternal.
A systematic 12-week investigation of development of play behavior was conducted with eight socially reared rhesus monkey infants. A new, basic and primary play form termed self-motion play or peragration was identified and examined. This behavior follows a human model which includes a wide range of pleasurable activities involving motion of the body through space, e.g., rocking, swinging, running, leaping, and water or snow skiing. It can be argued that self-motion play is the initial primate play form and because of its persistence constitutes a reinforcing agent for maintaining many complex patterns and even pastimes. Monkey self-motion play in the present study was divided into five separate patterns in order to compare the relative importance of social and individual peragration play, the role of apparatus and the overall developmental relationships between the different individual and social self-motion play patterns. The data showed that from 90 to 180 days of age self-motion play was independent of other forms of play, that individual self-motion play appeared earlier and with significantly greater increases in frequency than did social self-motion play, and that apparatus was a necessary component for significant increases in social self-motion play. Other findings were that self-motion play existed independent of locomotion and, though initiated by exploration, was separate from it. Therapeutic implications of self-motion play were discussed. (+info)
Behavioral methods used in the study of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrition in primate infants.
Domains of behavior may be broadly categorized as sensory, motor, motivational and arousal, cognitive, and social. Differences in these domains occur because of changes in brain structure and function. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6-23) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4-26) are major structural components of the brain that decrease when diets deficient in the essential fatty acids (EFA) alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are consumed. Early electrophysiologic and behavioral studies in EFA-deficient rodents showed behavioral effects attributable to lower-than-normal accumulation of DHA and AA in the brain. More recently, electrophysiologic and behavioral studies in EFA-deficient primate infants and analogous studies in human infants have been conducted. The human infants were fed formulas that could result in lower-than-optimal accumulation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in the brain during critical periods of development. This article describes the behavioral methods that have been used to study primate infants. These methods may be unfamiliar to many physicians and nutritionists who wish to read and interpret the human studies. The behavioral outcomes that have been evaluated in LCPUFA studies represent only a fraction of those available in the behavioral sciences. Specific developmental domains have been studied less often than global development, even though studies of nonhuman primates deficient in EFAs suggest that the former provide more information that could help target the underlying mechanisms of action of LCPUFAs in the brain. (+info)
Parent-infant interactions among families with alcoholic fathers.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fathers' alcoholism and the quality of parent-infant interactions during free play. A related goal was to study the potential mediating or moderating role of comorbid parental psychopathology, such as depression and antisocial behavior, difficult infant temperament, and parental aggression. The sample consisted of 204 families with 12-month-old infants (104 alcoholic and 100 control families), recruited from New York State birth records. Results indicated that fathers' alcoholism was associated with a number of other risk factors (depression, antisocial behavior, and family aggression). Fathers' alcoholism was also associated with more negative father-infant interactions as indicated by lower paternal sensitivity, positive affect, verbalizations, higher negative affect, and lower infant responsiveness among alcoholic fathers. As expected, fathers' depression mediated the relationship between fathers' alcoholism and sensitivity, while maternal depression mediated the association between maternal alcohol problems and maternal sensitivity. Parents' psychopathology did not moderate the association between alcoholism and parent-infant interactions. The results from the present study suggest that the origins of risk for later maladjustment among children of alcoholic fathers are apparent as early as infancy and highlight the role of comorbid parental risk factors. (+info)
Increasing paintball related eye trauma reported to a state eye injury registry.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate an apparent increase in documented trauma from paintball related eye injuries reported to the Eye Injury Registry of Indiana. METHODS: A retrospective review of cases reported to the database is reported, with representative case histories. RESULTS: No injuries from paintball were reported during the period June 1992 to June 1996. Over the next two years 11 injuries were reported, representing 4% of all ocular trauma reports over this period. Visual outcome is poor in many of these eyes and more than one half present with posterior segment ocular injury. CONCLUSIONS: Severe ocular trauma results from impacts from paintball pellets, and the occurrence of injuries appears to be increasing due to growth in popularity of this war game. Diligent use of eye protection by all participants is necessary to prevent a continuing rise in ocular trauma prevalence from this activity. (+info)
Tryptophan enhancement/depletion and reactions to failure on a cooperative computer game.
Twenty-eight high trait hostility male volunteers played a "cooperative" computer game 4.5 hours after an amino acid drink enhanced with, or depleted of, tryptophan. Each trial involved steering a tank through minefields following directions from an unknown "partner." Failure was experienced when the tank hit a mine or when time ran out. Subjects' moods, verbal aggression, attributions of blame, vocal acoustics, and blood pressure were assessed. Differences between tryptophan groups were not significant for primary measures of anger and verbal aggression. However, depleted subjects reported greater increases in feelings of restlessness and incompetence, were less successful in avoiding mines and showed greater increases in blood pressure during the game. Subjects in both groups sent more negative ratings when they lost the game by virtue of hitting a mine rather than losing by running out of time. However, ratings of the depleted group were less influenced by the reason for losing the game. Also, vocal acoustics showed a group X reason-for-losing interaction in the high-frequency band. Tryptophan-depleted subjects with high scores on Behavioral-Activation-System-Drive were most likely to send negative ratings and those scoring high on Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory Assault and Guilt to report increased anger after the game. (+info)