Interactions of sodium pentobarbital with D-glucose and L-sorbose transport in human red cells.
Pentobarbital acts as a mixed inhibitor of net D-glucose exit, as monitored photometrically from human red cells. At 30 degrees C the Ki of pentobarbital for inhibition of Vmax of zero-trans net glucose exit is 2.16+/-0.14 mM; the affinity of the external site of the transporter for D-glucose is also reduced to 50% of control by 1. 66+/-0.06 mM pentobarbital. Pentobarbital reduces the temperature coefficient of D-glucose binding to the external site. Pentobarbital (4 mM) reduces the enthalpy of D-glucose interaction from 49.3+/-9.6 to 16.24+/-5.50 kJ/mol (P<0.05). Pentobarbital (8 mM) increases the activation energy of glucose exit from control 54.7+/-2.5 kJ/mol to 114+/-13 kJ/mol (P<0.01). Pentobarbital reduces the rate of L-sorbose exit from human red cells, in the temperature range 45 degrees C-30 degrees C (P<0.001). On cooling from 45 degrees C to 30 degrees C, in the presence of pentobarbital (4 mM), the Ki (sorbose, glucose) decreases from 30.6+/-7.8 mM to 14+/-1.9 mM; whereas in control cells, Ki (sorbose, glucose) increases from 6.8+/-1.3 mM at 45 degrees C to 23.4+/-4.5 mM at 30 degrees C (P<0.002). Thus, the glucose inhibition of sorbose exit is changed from an endothermic process (enthalpy change=+60.6+/-14.7 kJ/mol) to an exothermic process (enthalpy change=-43+/-6.2 7 kJ/mol) by pentobarbital (4 mM) (P<0.005). These findings indicate that pentobarbital acts by preventing glucose-induced conformational changes in glucose transporters by binding to 'non-catalytic' sites in the transporter. (+info)
Specific chromosome alterations in fluconazole-resistant mutants of Candida albicans.
The exposure of Candida albicans to fluconazole resulted in the nondisjunction of two specific chromosomes in 17 drug-resistant mutants, each obtained by an independent mutational event. The chromosomal changes occurred at high frequencies and were related to the duration of the drug exposure. The loss of one homologue of chromosome 4 occurred after incubation on a fluconazole medium for 7 days. A second change, the gain of one copy of chromosome 3, was observed after exposure for 35 or 40 days. We found that the mRNA levels of ERG11, CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1, the candidate fluconazole resistance genes, remained either the same or were diminished. The lack of overexpression of putative drug pumps or the drug target indicated that some other mechanism(s) may be operating. The fluconazole resistance phenotype, electrophoretic karyotypes, and transcript levels of mutants were stable after growth for 112 generations in the absence of fluconazole. This is the first report to demonstrate that resistance to fluconazole can be dependent on chromosomal nondisjunction. Furthermore, we suggest that a low-level resistance to fluconazole arising during the early stages of clinical treatment may occur by this mechanism. These results support our earlier hypothesis that changes in C. albicans chromosome number is a common means to control a resource of potentially beneficial genes that are related to important cellular functions. (+info)
An alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Trichoderma reesei containing a noncatalytic xylan-binding domain.
L-Sorbose, an excellent cellulase and xylanase inducer from Trichoderma reesei PC-3-7, also induced alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase (alpha-AF) activity. An alpha-AF induced by L-sorbose was purified to homogeneity, and its molecular mass was revealed to be 35 kDa (AF35), which was not consistent with that of the previously reported alpha-AF. Another species, with a molecular mass of 53 kDa (AF53), which is identical to that of the reported alpha-AF, was obtained by a different purification procedure. Acid treatment of the ammonium sulfate-precipitated fraction at pH 3.0 in the purification steps or pepsin treatment of the purified AF53 reduced the molecular mass to 35 kDa. Both purified enzymes have the same enzymological properties, such as pH and temperature effects on activity and kinetic parameters for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside (pNPA). Moreover, the N-terminal amino acid sequences of these enzymes were identical with that of the reported alpha-AF. Therefore, it is obvious that AF35 results from the proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminal region of AF53. Although AF35 and AF53 showed the same catalytic constant with pNPA, the former showed drastically reduced specific activity against oat spelt xylan compared to the latter. Furthermore, AF53 was bound to xylan rather than to crystalline cellulose (Avicel), but AF35 could not be bound to any of the glycans. These results suggest that AF53 is a modular glycanase, which consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal noncatalytic xylan-binding domain. (+info)
Appearance and properties of L-sorbose-utilizing mutants of Candida albicans obtained on a selective plate.
This is the first report that adaptive mutagenesis can arise by chromosomal nondisjunction, a phenomenon previously associated exclusively with DNA alterations. We previously uncovered a novel regulatory mechanism in Candida albicans in which the assimilation of an alternative sugar, l-sorbose, was determined by copy number of chromosome 5, such that monosomic strains utilized l-sorbose, whereas disomic strains did not. We present evidence that this formation of monosomy of chromosome 5, which is apparently a result of nondisjunction, appeared with increased frequencies after a selective condition was applied, i.e., by adaptive mutagenesis. The rate of formation of l-sorbose-utilizing mutants per viable cell per day ranged from 10(-6) at the initial time of detection to 10(-2) after 4 days of incubation on the selective plate. (+info)
Genetics of L-sorbose transport and metabolism in Lactobacillus casei.
Genes encoding L-sorbose metabolism of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 have been identified on a 6.8-kb chromosomal DNA fragment. Sequence analysis revealed seven complete genes and a partial open reading frame transcribed as two units. The deduced amino acid sequences of the first transcriptional unit (sorRE) showed high similarity to the transcriptional regulator and the L-sorbose-1-phosphate reductase of the sorbose (sor) operon from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The other genes are transcribed as one unit (sorFABCDG) in opposite direction to sorRE. The deduced peptide sequence of sorF showed homology with the D-sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded in the sor operon from K. pneumoniae and sorABCD to components of the mannose phosphotransferase system (PTS) family but especially to domains EIIA, EIIB, EIIC and EIID of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent L-sorbose PTS from K. pneumoniae. Finally, the deduced amino acid sequence of a truncated gene (sorG) located downstream of sorD presented high similarity with ketose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases. Results of studies on enzyme activities and transcriptional analysis revealed that the two gene clusters, sorRE and sorFABCDG, are induced by L-sorbose and subject to catabolite repression by D-glucose. Data indicating that the catabolite repression is mediated by components of the PTS elements and by CcpA, are presented. Results of sugar uptake assays in L. casei wild-type and sorBC mutant strains indicated that L-sorbose is taken up by L-sorbose-specific enzyme II and that L. casei contains an inducible D-fructose-specific PTS. Results of growth analysis of those strains and a man sorBC double mutant suggested that L-sorbose is probably also transported by the D-mannose PTS. We also present evidence, from studies on a sorR mutant, suggesting that the sorR gene encodes a positive regulator of the two sor operons. Sequence alignment of SorR, SorC (K. pneumoniae), and DeoR (Bacillus subtilis) revealed that they might constitute a new group of transcriptional regulators. (+info)
Induction of mating in Candida albicans by construction of MTLa and MTLalpha strains.
Although the diploid fungus Candida albicans, a human pathogen, has been thought to have no sexual cycle, it normally possesses mating-type-like orthologs (MTL) of both of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating-type genes (MAT) a and alpha. When strains containing only MTLa or MTLalpha were constructed by the loss of one homolog of chromosome 5, the site of the MTL loci, MTLa and MTLalpha strains mated, but like mating types did not. Evidence for mating included formation of stable prototrophs from strains with complementing auxotrophic markers; these contained both MTL alleles and molecular markers from both parents and were tetraploid in DNA content and mononucleate. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of thermotolerant Gluconobacter strains catalyzing oxidative fermentation at higher temperatures.
Thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genus Gluconobacter were isolated from various kinds of fruits and flowers from Thailand and Japan. The screening strategy was built up to exclude Acetobacter strains by adding gluconic acid to a culture medium in the presence of 1% D-sorbitol or 1% D-mannitol. Eight strains of thermotolerant Gluconobacter were isolated and screened for D-fructose and L-sorbose production. They grew at wide range of temperatures from 10 degrees C to 37 degrees C and had average optimum growth temperature between 30-33 degrees C. All strains were able to produce L-sorbose and D-fructose at higher temperatures such as 37 degrees C. The 16S rRNA sequences analysis showed that the isolated strains were almost identical to G. frateurii with scores of 99.36-99.79%. Among these eight strains, especially strains CHM16 and CHM54 had high oxidase activity for D-mannitol and D-sorbitol, converting it to D-fructose and L-sorbose at 37 degrees C, respectively. Sugar alcohols oxidation proceeded without a lag time, but Gluconobacter frateurii IFO 3264T was unable to do such fermentation at 37 degrees C. Fermentation efficiency and fermentation rate of the strains CHM16 and CHM54 were quite high and they rapidly oxidized D-mannitol and D-sorbitol to D-fructose and L-sorbose at almost 100% within 24 h at 30 degrees C. Even oxidative fermentation of D-fructose done at 37 degrees C, the strain CHM16 still accumulated D-fructose at 80% within 24 h. The efficiency of L-sorbose fermentation by the strain CHM54 at 37 degrees C was superior to that observed at 30 degrees C. Thus, the eight strains were finally classified as thermotolerant members of G. frateurii. (+info)
Responses of the ant Lasius niger to various compounds perceived as sweet in humans: a structure-activity relationship study.
A behavioural study on the ant Lasius niger was performed by observing its feeding responses to 85 compounds presented in a two-choice situation (tested compound versus water control or sucrose solution). Among these compounds, only 21 were phagostimulating: six monosaccharides (D-glucose, 6-deoxy-D-glucose, L-galactose, L-fucose, D-fructose, L-sorbose), four derivatives of D-glucose (methyl alpha-D-glucoside, D-gluconolactone and 6-chloro- and 6-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose), five disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, palatinose, turanose and isomaltose), one polyol glycoside (maltitol), three trisaccharides (melezitose, raffinose and maltotriose) and two polyols (sorbitol and L-iditol). None of the 16 non-carbohydrate non-polyol compounds tested, although perceived as sweet in humans, was found to be active in ants. The molar order of effectiveness of the major naturally occuring compounds (melezitose > sucrose = raffinose > D-glucose > D-fructose = maltose = sorbitol) is basically different from the molar order of their sweetness potency in humans (sucrose > D-fructose > melezitose > maltose > D-glucose = raffinose = sorbitol). On a molar basis melezitose is in L. niger about twice as effective as sucrose or raffinose, while D-glucose and D-fructose are three and four times less effective, respectively, than sucrose or raffinose. From a structure-activity relationship study it was inferred that the active monosaccharides and polyols should interact with the ant receptor through only one type of receptor, through the same binding pocket and the same binding residues, via a six-point interaction. The high effectiveness of melezitose in L. niger mirrors the feeding habits of these ants, which attend homopterans and are heavy feeders on their honeydew, which is very rich in this carbohydrate. (+info)