We have isolated, from canine pancreatic juice, two 14-kDa proteins with secretin-releasing activity that had N-terminal sequence homology with canine pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2). In this study we have obtained evidence that secretin-releasing activity is an intrinsic property of pancreatic PLA2. Porcine pancreatic PLA2 from Sigma or Boehringer Mannheim was fractionated into several peaks by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. They were tested for stimulation of secretin release from murine neuroendocrine intestinal tumor cell line STC-1 and secretin cells enriched mucosal cell preparations isolated from rat upper small intestine. Each enzyme preparation was found to contain several components of secretin-releasing activity. Each bioactive fraction was purified to homogeneity by rechromatography and then subjected to mass spectral analysis and assays of PLA2 and secretin-releasing activities. It was found that the fraction with highest enzymatic activity also had the highest secretin-releasing activity and the same Mr as porcine pancreatic PLA2. Moreover, it also had the same N-terminal amino acid sequence (up to 30 residues determined) as that of porcine pancreatic PLA2, suggesting that it was identical to the enzyme. Purified porcine pancreatic PLA2 also stimulated secretin release concentration-dependently from both STC-1 cells and a mucosal cell preparation enriched in secretin-containing endocrine cells isolated from rat duodenum. Abolishment of the enzymatic activity by pretreatment with bromophenacyl bromide did not affect its secretin-releasing activity. The stimulatory effect of purified pancreatic PLA2 on secretin secretion from STC-1 cells was inhibited by an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, by down-regulation of protein kinase C or by pretreatment of the cell with pertussis toxin. It is concluded that porcine pancreatic PLA2 possesses an intrinsic secretin-releasing activity that was independent of its enzymatic activity. This action is pertussis toxin-sensitive and is in part dependent on Ca2+ influx through the L-type channel and activation of protein kinase C. (+info)
COOH-terminally extended secretins are potent stimulants of pancreatic secretion.
Posttranslational processing of preprosecretin generates several COOH-terminally extended forms of secretin and alpha-carboxyl amidated secretin. We used synthetic canine secretin analogs with COOH-terminal -amide, -Gly, or -Gly-Lys-Arg to examine the effects of COOH-terminal extensions of secretin on bioactivity and detection in RIA. Synthetic products were purified by reverse-phase and ion-exchange HPLC and characterized by reverse-phase isocratic HPLC and amino acid, sequence, and mass spectral analyses. Secretin and secretin-Gly were noted to coelute during reverse-phase HPLC. In RIA using eight different antisera raised against amidated secretin, COOH-terminally extended secretins had little or no cross-reactivity. Bioactivity was assessed by measuring pancreatic responses in anesthetized rats. Amidated canine and porcine secretins were equipotent. Secretin-Gly and secretin-Gly-Lys-Arg had potencies of 81 +/- 9% (P > 0.05) and 176 +/- 13% (P < 0.01), respectively, compared with amidated secretin, and the response to secretin-Gly-Lys-Arg lasted significantly longer. These data demonstrate that 1) amidated secretin and secretin-Gly are not separable under some chromatographic conditions, 2) current RIA may not detect bioactive COOH-terminally extended forms of secretin in tissue extracts or blood, and 3) the secretin receptor mediating stimulation of pancreatic secretion recognizes both amidated and COOH-terminally extended secretins. (+info)
Secretagogue-induced digestive enzyme activation and cell injury in rat pancreatic acini.
The mechanisms responsible for intrapancreatic digestive enzyme activation as well as the relationship between that activation and cell injury during pancreatitis are not understood. We have employed an in vitro system in which freshly prepared pancreatic acini are exposed to a supramaximally stimulating concentration of the CCK analog caerulein to explore these issues. We find that in vitro trypsinogen activation depends on the continued presence of Ca2+ in the suspending medium and that it is half-maximal in the presence of 0.3 mM Ca2+. Caerulein-induced trypsinogen activation can be halted by removal of Ca2+ from the suspending medium or by chelation of intracellular Ca2+. Increasing intracellular Ca2+ with either ionomycin or thapsigargin does not induce trypsinogen activation. We have monitored cell injury by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from acini and by quantitating intercalation of propidium iodide (PI) into DNA. Leakage of LDH and intercalation of PI in response to supramaximal stimulation with caerulein can be detected only after caerulein-induced trypsinogen activation has already occurred, and these indications of cell injury can be prevented by addition of a cell-permeant protease inhibitor. Our findings indicate that caerulein-induced intra-acinar cell activation of trypsinogen depends on a rise in intracellular Ca2+, which reflects entry of Ca2+ from the suspending medium. Intra-acinar cell activation of trypsinogen is an early as well as a critical event in pancreatitis. The subsequent cell injury in this model is mediated by activated proteases. (+info)
Vagus nerve modulates secretin binding sites in the rat forestomach.
Secretin is well known for its inhibitory action on gastric motility. It has been reported that secretin in a physiological dose inhibits gastric motility through mediation by the vagal afferent pathway. Secretin also elicited relaxation of carbachol-stimulated rat forestomach muscle strips by binding to its receptors, suggesting a direct action on this peripheral tissue. We hypothesized that vagal input may affect the action of secretin by modulating the level of secretin receptor in the forestomach. Several treatments, including vagal ligation, vagotomy, perivagal application of capsaicin or colchicine, intravenous infusion of tetrodotoxin, and intraperitoneal injection of atropine, were performed to investigate their effects on secretin receptor binding to forestomach membranes. Specific binding of 125I-labeled secretin to forestomach membranes was significantly decreased (45%) by vagal ligation, vagotomy (50%), or perivagal colchicine treatment (40%). On the contrary, specific binding of 125I-secretin was not affected by perivagal capsaicin treatment, intravenous infusion of tetrodotoxin, or intraperitoneal injection of atropine. By Scatchard analysis of the binding data, the capacity of the high-affinity binding sites in forestomach membranes was found to decrease significantly after vagal ligation compared with membranes from the sham-operated group. However, the affinity at the high-affinity binding sites, the binding parameters of the low-affinity binding sites, and binding specificity were not changed. Vagal ligation but not perivagal capsaicin treatment reduced the inhibitory effect of secretin on bethanechol-stimulated contraction of isolated forestomach muscle strips, causing a right shift in the dose-response curve. These results suggest that vagal input through axonal transport plays a significant role on secretin action by modulating the capacity of secretin binding sites (but not affinity or specificity), at least in rat forestomach. (+info)
Acute carbon tetrachloride feeding induces damage of large but not small cholangiocytes from BDL rat liver.
Bile duct damage and/or loss is limited to a range of duct sizes in cholangiopathies. We tested the hypothesis that CCl4 damages only large ducts. CCl4 or mineral oil was given to bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats, and 1, 2, and 7 days later small and large cholangiocytes were purified and evaluated for apoptosis, proliferation, and secretion. In situ, we measured apoptosis by morphometric and TUNEL analysis and the number of small and large ducts by morphometry. Two days after CCl4 administration, we found an increased number of small ducts and reduced number of large ducts. In vitro apoptosis was observed only in large cholangiocytes, and this was accompanied by loss of proliferation and secretion in large cholangiocytes and loss of choleretic effect of secretin. Small cholangiocytes de novo express the secretin receptor gene and secretin-induced cAMP response. Consistent with damage of large ducts, we detected cytochrome P-4502E1 (which CCl4 converts to its radicals) only in large cholangiocytes. CCl4 induces selective apoptosis of large ducts associated with loss of large cholangiocyte proliferation and secretion. (+info)
Similar structures and shared switch mechanisms of the beta2-adrenoceptor and the parathyroid hormone receptor. Zn(II) bridges between helices III and VI block activation.
The seven transmembrane helices of serpentine receptors comprise a conserved switch that relays signals from extracellular stimuli to heterotrimeric G proteins on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. By substituting histidines for residues at the cytoplasmic ends of helices III and VI in retinal rhodopsin, we engineered a metal-binding site whose occupancy by Zn(II) prevented the receptor from activating a retinal G protein, Gt (Sheikh, S. P., Zvyaga, T. A. , Lichtarge, O., Sakmar, T. P., and Bourne, H. R. (1996) Nature 383, 347-350). Now we report engineering of metal-binding sites bridging the cytoplasmic ends of these two helices in two other serpentine receptors, the beta2-adrenoreceptor and the parathyroid hormone receptor; occupancy of the metal-binding site by Zn(II) markedly impairs the ability of each receptor to mediate ligand-dependent activation of Gs, the stimulatory regulator of adenylyl cyclase. We infer that these two receptors share with rhodopsin a common three-dimensional architecture and an activation switch that requires movement, relative to one another, of helices III and VI; these inferences are surprising in the case of the parathyroid hormone receptor, a receptor that contains seven stretches of hydrophobic sequence but whose amino acid sequence otherwise shows no apparent similarity to those of receptors in the rhodopsin family. These findings highlight the evolutionary conservation of the switch mechanism of serpentine receptors and help to constrain models of how the switch works. (+info)
Duodenal acid-induced gastric relaxation is mediated by multiple pathways.
In this study, we used an in vivo anesthetized rat model to investigate the mechanisms responsible for duodenal acid-induced inhibition of gastric motility. Intraduodenal infusion of HCl produced a rate-dependent decrease in intragastric pressure. Infusion of HCl at 2 ml/h produced a physiological plasma secretin level and elicited a decrease in intragastric pressure of 3.0 +/- 0. 2 cmH20. Infusion of rabbit secretin antiserum reduced the acid-induced inhibition of gastric motility by 85 +/- 5%, suggesting mediation mainly by endogenous secretin. Administration of the cholecystokinin (CCK)-A antagonist MK-329 caused only a modest 10 +/- 3% reduction in gastric relaxation, whereas the serotonin antagonist ICS-205930 had no effect. In contrast, immunoneutralization with the secretin antibody caused only a 15% reduction in the relaxation evoked by a higher rate of HCl infusion (3 ml/h), whereas MK-329 and ICS-205930 caused a 20 +/- 4% reduction and no reduction, respectively. Bilateral truncal vagotomy or perivagal application of capsaicin completely abolished gastric relaxation in response to low rates (1-2 ml/h) of 0.1 N HCl infusion but only partially affected gastric relaxation in response to a higher infusion rate (3 ml/h). These observations indicate that multiple pathways mediate the duodenal acid-induced inhibition of gastric motility. At low rates of HCl infusion, gastric relaxation is mediated primarily by endogenous secretin, which acts through vagal afferent pathways. At higher rates of HCl infusion, gastric relaxation is mediated by endogenous secretin, CCK, and possibly by the direct action of HCl on vagal afferent pathways or yet unidentified neuropathways. (+info)
Identification of an interaction between residue 6 of the natural peptide ligand and a distinct residue within the amino-terminal tail of the secretin receptor.
Photoaffinity labeling is a powerful tool for the characterization of the molecular basis of ligand binding. We recently used this technique to demonstrate the proximity between a residue within the carboxyl-terminal half of a secretin-like ligand and the amino-terminal domain of the secretin receptor (Dong, M., Wang, Y., Pinon, D. I., Hadac, E. M., and Miller, L. J. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 903-909). In this work, we have developed another novel radioiodinatable secretin analogue ([Bpa6,Tyr10]rat secretin-27) that incorporates a photolabile p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (Bpa) residue into position 6 of the amino-terminal half of the ligand and used this to identify a specific receptor residue proximate to it. This probe specifically bound to the secretin receptor with high affinity (IC50 = 13.2 +/- 2.5 nM) and was a potent stimulant of cAMP accumulation in secretin receptor-bearing Chinese hamster ovary-SecR cells (EC50 = 720 +/- 230 pM). It covalently labeled the secretin receptor in a saturable and specific manner. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of this molecule yielded a single labeled fragment that migrated on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel at Mr = 19,000 that shifted to 10 after deglycosylation, most consistent with either of two glycosylated fragments within the amino-terminal tail. By immunoprecipitation with antibody directed to epitope tags incorporated into each of the two candidate fragments, the most distal fragment at the amino terminus was identified as the domain of labeling. The labeled domain was further refined to the first 16 residues by endoproteinase Lys-C cleavage and by cyanogen bromide cleavage of another receptor construct in which Val16 was mutated to Met. Radiochemical sequencing of photoaffinity-labeled secretin receptor fragments established that Val4 was the specific site of covalent attachment. This provides the first residue-residue contact between a secretin ligand and its receptor and will contribute substantially to the molecular understanding of this interaction. (+info)