Clusterin gene expression mediates resistance to apoptotic cell death induced by heat shock and oxidative stress.
Clusterin is a widely expressed, well conserved, secreted glycoprotein, which is highly induced in tissues regressing as a consequence of apoptotic cell death in vivo. It has recently been shown that clusterin expression is only confined to surviving cells following the induction of apoptosis in vitro, suggesting that it is involved in cell survival rather than death. In the hypothesis that clusterin may be implicated in cellular responses to stress, clusterin gene expression was analyzed in the A431 human epidermoid cancer cell line following heat shock and oxidative stress. Our results show that both a transient heat shock (20 min at 42 degrees C) and various oxidative stresses, including hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, hyperoxia and UVA exposure, induce a strong increase in clusterin mRNA levels as assessed by northern blot. Nuclear run-on analysis suggests that transcriptional activation is involved in inducing clusterin mRNA in response to heat shock. Using pulse-chase analysis of control and heat shocked cells, it is shown that clusterin mRNA is translated and secreted, thus resulting in increased extracellular levels of the protein following heat shock. To investigate the function of clusterin in response to these stresses, clusterin anti-sense transfectants that stably express virtually no clusterin at the mRNA and protein level were generated in A431 cells. These anti-sense transfectants are shown to be highly sensitive to apoptotic cell death induced by heat shock or oxidative stress compared with wild-type A431 cells or control transfectants. Taken together, our results show that clusterin gene expression is induced in response to heat shock and oxidative stress in human A431 cells, and confers cellular protection against heat shock and oxidative stress. (+info)
Study on delay two-phase multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: To study the injury factors, pathogenic process and clinical features of delay two-phase multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in severe burned patients and to replicate a standardized animal model that would accurately imitate the clinical features of MODS. METHODS: Forty-five human patients with burn size larger than 30% total body surface area (TBSA) were analyzed. All of them underwent severe burn shock in early stage and sepsis in late stage. Thirty-two goats were randomly divided into three groups: 1) hemorrhagic shock (group H, n = 6); 2) endotoxemia (group E, n = 6); and 3) hemorrhagic shock plus endotoxemia (group M, n = 20). Hemorrhagic shock was produced according to the method of Wigger (6.7 kPa for an hour, 1 kPa = 7.5 mmHg). Endotoxin (E. coli O111 B4) was given via the portal vein 24 hours after the resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock, in a dose of 30 ng/kg/min for 5 consecutive days. During the observation period of 10 days, all animals were hemodynamically monitored, given standard metabolic support and due cardiac and pulmonary support according to human intensive care. RESULTS: All the patients showed burn shock at 1-3 days and hyperdynamic circulation, hypermetabolism and systemic inflammatory responses over two weeks post-injury. Thirteen cases were found to develop MODS according to the prevailing diagnostic criteria, and 10 of them died with a mortality of 77%. Eighteen animals died in group M with a mortality of 90%, 12 of the 18 developed MODS, with overall incidence of 60%. Most animals in group M showed changes similar to that observed in human cases. The experimentation proved that in the pathogenic process of MODS, there was a two-hit phenomenon in the dvelopment of the syndrome. To prevent the development of MODS, it therefore was imperative to blunt the first hit or the second hit, so that an excessive inflammatory response was alleviated. This postulation has been verified in the treatment of extensive burns. Two patients with burn extent reaching 100% TBSA survived with only mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and renal dysfunction after comprehensive treatment of burn shock, including adequate fluid resuscitation, drugs to remove oxygen free radicals, rapid restoration of pHi, and early extensive excision of burn eschars. CONCLUSION: Both in human patients or animal experimentation, the typical delay two-phase MODS is shown to be produced by two successive insults in the forms of hypovolemic shock and sepsis. This postulation is helpful in formulating the prevention and treatment modality of MODS. (+info)
Recombinant human erythropoietin inhibits iNOS activity and reverts vascular dysfunction in splanchnic artery occlusion shock.
1. We investigated the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO) in splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock. Sham operated animals were used as controls. Survival rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), serum Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha), plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations, red blood cell (RBC) count, blood haemoglobin (Hb), the responsiveness of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PE, 1 nM-10 microM) and the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were studied. 2. SAO shocked rats had a decreased survival rate (0% at 4 h of reperfusion, while sham shocked rats survived more than 4 h), enhanced serum TNF-alpha concentrations, increased plasma nitrite/nitrate levels (60+/-9.5 microM; sham shocked rats= 2+/-0.4 microM), decreased MAP, unchanged RBC count and blood Hb and enhanced iNOS activity in the aorta. Moreover aortic rings from shocked rats showed a marked hyporeactivity to PE. 3. Rh-EPO (25, 50 and 100 U 100 g(-1), 5 min following the onset of reperfusion) increased survival rate (70% at 4 h of reperfusion with the highest dose), reduced plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations (10.3+/-3.3 microM), increased MAP, did not change RBC count and blood Hb, and inhibited iNOS activity in thoracic aortae. Furthermore rh-EPO, either in vivo or in vitro (10 U for 1 h in the organ bath), restored to control values the hyporeactivity to PE. Finally rh-EPO inhibited the activity of iNOS in peritoneal macrophages activated with endotoxin. 4. Our data suggest that rh-EPO protects against SAO shock by inhibiting iNOS activity. (+info)
Tacrolimus suppresses tumour necrosis factor-alpha and protects against splanchnic artery occlusion shock.
1. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine which is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock. Tacrolimus, formerly known as FK506, is a macrolide antibiotic, that blocks the transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha. 2. Male anaesthetized rats were subjected to clamping of the splanchnic arteries for 45 min. This surgical procedure resulted in an irreversible state of shock (SAO shock). Sham operated animals were used as controls. SAO shocked rats had a decreased survival rate (0% at 4 h of reperfusion, while sham shocked rats survived more than 4 h), enhanced serum TNF-alpha concentrations (415+/-12 U ml(-1)), decreased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), leukopenia and increased ileal leukocyte accumulation studied by means of myeloperoxidase activity (MPO=7.5+/-0.3 U g(-1) tissue). Moreover aortic rings from shocked rats showed a marked hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (PE, 1 nM - 10 microM), reduced responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh, 10 nM - 10 microM) and increased staining for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore increased mRNA for TNF-alpha was observed in peritoneal macrophages of SAO shocked rats. 3. Tacrolimus (100 microg kg(-1), 5 min after splanchnic arteries occlusion) increased survival rate (SAO + Tacrolimus = 100% at 4 h of reperfusion), reverted the marked hypotension, reduced serum TNF-alpha (15+/-3 U ml(-1)), ameliorated leukopenia, reduced ileal MPO (0.9+/-0.01 U g(-1) tissue), restored to control values the hyporeactivity to PE. improved the reduced responsiveness to ACh and blunted the enhanced immunostaining for ICAM-1 in the aorta. Finally tacrolimus suppressed cytokine mRNA levels in peritoneal macrophages. 4. The data suggest that tacrolimus may represent a new therapeutic approach in circulatory shock. (+info)
Acute systemic reaction and lung alterations induced by an antiplatelet integrin gpIIb/IIIa antibody in mice.
Shock is frequently accompanied by thrombocytopenia. To investigate the pathogenic role of platelets in shock, we examined the in vivo effects of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against mouse platelet membrane proteins. Injection of the platelet-specific MoAb MWReg30 to the fibrinogen receptor (gpIIb/IIIa) rendered mice severely hypothermic within minutes. Isotype-matched control antibodies, even if they also recognized platelet surface antigens, did not induce comparable signs. MWReg30 induced early signs of acute lung injury with increased cellularity in the lung interstitium and rapid engorgement of alveolar septal vessels. Despite this in vivo activity, MWReg30 inhibited rather than stimulated platelet aggregation in vitro. MWReg30-binding to platelets led to phosphorylation of gpIIIa, but did not induce morphological signs of platelet activation. The MWReg30-induced reaction was abolished after treatment with MoAbs 2.4G2 to FcgammaRII/III and was absent in FcgammaRIII-deficient mice, clearly demonstrating the requirement for FcgammaRIII on involved leukocytes. Simultaneous administration of tumor necrosis factor exacerbated, whereas a tolerizing regimen of tumor necrosis factor or bacterial lipopolysaccharide completely prevented the reaction. These data suggest that platelet surface-deposited MWReg30-immune complexes lead to an acute Fc-mediated reaction with pulmonary congestion and life-threatening potential that could serve as an in vivo model of acute lung injury. (+info)
Influence of hypovolemia on the pharmacokinetics and the electroencephalographic effect of etomidate in the rat.
The influence of hypovolemia (removal of 30% of the blood volume) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of etomidate was investigated in the rat. Chronically instrumented animals were randomly allocated to either a control (n = 9) or a hypovolemia (n = 9) group, and etomidate was infused (50 mg/kg/h) until isoelectric periods of 5 s or longer were observed in the electroencephalogram. The changes observed in the electroencephalogram were quantified using aperiodic analysis in the 2.5- to 7.5-Hz frequency band and used as a surrogate measure of hypnosis. The righting reflex was used as a clinical measure of hypnosis. The etomidate dose that had to be infused to reach the electroencephalographic endpoint was almost 40% lower (p <.01) in the hypovolemic animals than in the control animals. This difference could be attributed to a decrease in clearance (-20%; p =.06) and distribution volume (-30%; p <.01) of etomidate. Protein binding was similar in both groups. To investigate changes in end organ sensitivity during hypovolemia, the electroencephalographic effect-versus-effect-site concentration relationship was studied. The effect-plasma concentration relationship was biphasic, exhibiting profound hysteresis in both hypovolemic and control animals. Semiparametric minimization of this hysteresis revealed similar equilibrium half-lives in both groups, and the biphasic effect-concentration relationship was characterized nonparametrically by descriptors. With these descriptors, a slightly increased potency of etomidate during hemorrhage was observed. The concentration at the return of righting reflex was 16% (p <.05) lower in the hypovolemic animals. In conclusion, an increased hypnotic effect of etomidate was observed during hypovolemia that is mainly attributed to pharmacokinetic changes. Our data also suggest a small increase in central nervous system sensitivity for etomidate in hypovolemic animals. (+info)
Delayed hypovolemic hypotension exacerbates the hemodynamic and histopathologic consequences of thromboembolic stroke in rats.
Abnormalities in cerebrovascular reactivity or hemodynamic reserve are risk factors for stroke. The authors determined whether hemodynamic reserve is reduced in an experimental model of thromboembolic stroke. Nonocclusive common carotid artery thrombosis (CCAT) was produced in rats by a rose bengal-mediated photochemical insult, and moderate hypotension (60 mm Hg/30 min) was induced 1 hour later by hemorrhage. Alterations in local cerebral blood flow (ICBF) were assessed immediately after the hypotensive period by 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography, and histopathologic outcome was determined 3 days after CCAT. Compared to normotensive CCAT rats (n = 5), induced hypotension after CCAT (n = 7) led to enlarged regions of severe ischemia (i.e., mean ICBF < 0.24 mL/g/min) in the ipsilateral hemisphere. For example, induced hypotension increased the volume of severely ischemic sites from 16 +/- 4 mm3 (mean +/- SD) to 126 +/- 99 mm3 (P < 0.05). Histopathologic data also showed a larger volume of ischemic damage with secondary hypotension (n = 7) compared to normotension (22 +/- 15 mm3 versus 5 +/- 5 mm3, P < .05). Both hypotension-induced decreases in ICBF and ischemic pathology were commonly detected within cortical anterior and posterior borderzone areas and within the ipsilateral striatum and hippocampus. In contrast to CCAT, mechanical ligation of the common carotid artery plus hypotension (n = 8) did not produce significant histopathologic damage. Nonocclusive CCAT with secondary hypotension therefore predisposes the post-thrombotic brain to hemodynamic stress and structural damage. (+info)
Anxiogenic-like action of galanin after intra-amygdala administration in the rat.
The neuropeptide galanin is expressed in brain structures implicated in regulation of emotionality. The amygdala is known to play a central role in mechanisms of fear and anxiety. We therefore examined the effects of galanin (0.2 and 0.6 nmol/side) on experimental anxiety upon microinjection into the amygdala. Two established animal models of anxiety were used: a punished drinking test, and the elevated plus-maze. Punished responding was dose dependently suppressed by intra-amygdala galanin, whereas unpunished responding, drinking motivation, locomotor activity, and shock thresholds were unaffected. No effects on experimental anxiety were seen in the plus-maze following galanin injection. When injected into parietal cortex, no anxiety promoting properties of galanin were detected. These data suggest that activation of galanin receptors in amygdala modulates neurotransmission involved in fear and experimental anxiety. (+info)