Effect of artemether on glucose uptake and glycogen content in Schistosoma japonicum.
AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on glucose uptake and glycogen content in schistosomes. METHODS: Schistosomes recovered from mice treated intragastrically with Art 300 mg.kg-1 for 24-48 h, were incubated in the drug-free medium containing [U-14C]glucose 11.1 MBq.L-1. The glycogen content, [U-14C]glucose uptake, and incorporation of [U-14C]glucose into worm glycogen in both male and female worms were determined. RESULTS: When above-mentioned schistosomes were exposed to drug-free medium containing [U-14C]glucose for 1-24 h, the glycogen contents of male and female worms decreased 27%-61% and 39%-78%, respectively. Only 3 out of 6 male worm groups showed 23%-35% decrease in glucose uptake, while much less glucose uptake was found in female worms in all groups with reduction rates of 18%-38%. Apart from 2 male groups no apparent change in the incorporation of [U-14C]glucose into the worm glycogen was seen. CONCLUSIONS: Art-induced glycogen reduction in schistosomes was related to an inhibition of glycolysis rather than an interference with glucose uptake. (+info)
Inhibitory effect of artemether on proteinase of Schistosoma japonicum.
AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on the thio proteinase ("hemoglobinase", Hem) of Schistosoma japonicum. METHODS: Hem was extracted from S japonicum adults. The inhibitory effect of Art on the activity of Hem to degrade human hemoglobin (Hgb) was examined with UV-photometer at 280 nm, SDS-PAGE and scanning at 600 nm on a chromoscanner. RESULTS: Human Hgb was degraded at pH 4.0 by the Hem. The activities of Hem preincubated at 37 degrees C with Art 0.14, 1.4, and 14 mmol.L-1, were inhibited by 30.2%, 39.8%, and 45.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Art possesses an inhibitory effect to Hem of S japonicum. (+info)
Resolution and resurgence of schistosoma haematobium-induced pathology after community-based chemotherapy in ghana, as detected by ultrasound.
Community-based treatment is recommended for endemic populations with urinary schistosomiasis; however, the optimal target group for treatment and retreatment interval have not been established. Using ultrasound, this study identified subpopulations whose lesions were most likely to respond to treatment and characterized resurgence of pathology. Ultrasound examination of 1202 infected patients was followed by chemotherapy with praziquantel. A sample of 698 patients was followed for 18 months after treatment. Nearly all types of bladder pathologies resolved after treatment, regardless of patient's age or intensity of initial infection. However, many patients' upper urinary tract pathologies (62.5%) did not resolve. During the 18-month follow-up period, reappearance of severe bladder pathologies was rare, and <10% of persons had resurgence of mild bladder pathologies. For this population, retreatment is not needed annually but might be cost effective if given several years later. Confirmation from other areas is required before general policies can be formed. (+info)
Seroepidemiology of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: evidence for vanishing endemicity.
The current study summarizes our findings of anti-schistosome egg antibody by the circumoval precipitin test for two different populations in Puerto Rico. One group, exclusively males more than 40 years of age and from all municipalities on the island, was from the Veterans Administration Hospital for the period 1988-1997. The second group resided southeast of San Juan, around the municipality of Caguas and adjacent municipalities east of Caguas, was of both sexes and mostly until 1997 of undetermined ages for the period 1993-1997. Results reveal a yearly decrease in testing requests from the Veterans Administration Hospital from 148 in 1988 and 1989 with 16% positive to three in 1996 through 1998 with none positive. This decrease in testing requests was because of a decrease of suspicion of schistosomiasis in this group. The other patient population from the Caguas region showed a gradual but continuous decrease in seropositive individuals from 21% in 1993 to 12% in 1996, with precipitous decrease to 5% in 1997 and only 1% in 1998. Moreover, there were four patients from which at least two serum samples were obtained one or two years apart and tested. In each instance the more recently obtained sample had lower antibody reactions than the first as reflected in lower percentages of positive egg reactors. The fact that they were treated with praziquantel after the first testing also suggests that the infected population was being eliminated through chemotherapy. These combined results suggest the elimination of infections with Schistosoma mansoni in the traditionally high prevalence regions east of San Juan in the absence of any proactive control efforts in Puerto Rico. Because of the rapid urbanizing of Puerto Rico, the one identifiable control effort is economic development and well being. (+info)
Evidence for an improvement in cognitive function following treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Chinese primary schoolchildren.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, treatment trial was conducted in Sichuan, China to investigate the unique and combined effects on the cognitive function (working memory) of children after treating geohelminth infections with albendazole and treating Schistosoma japonicum infection with praziquantel. One hundred eighty-one children 5-16 years of age participated. At baseline, the praziquantel and placebo groups were similar in all background characteristics. Three months after praziquantel treatment, there was a significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum infection. There were significant age group by praziquantel treatment interaction effects in three of the five cognitive tests, Fluency, Picture Search, and Free Recall, with effects being strongest in the youngest children (5-7 years old). Exploratory analysis within the youngest children showed a significant positive main effect of treatment on Fluency (P < 0.001), after controlling for sex, anthropometric, and parasitic and iron status. There was also a treatment by height-for-age interaction (P = 0.03) and a treatment by iron status interaction (P = 0.024) on Fluency. There was a treatment by S. japonicum intensity interaction (P < 0.001) on Free Recall, but the main effect of treatment on Picture Search was not significant (P = 0.058). Younger children and those who are physically the most vulnerable are likely to benefit the most from the treatment of S. japonicum infection in terms of improved performance on tests of working memory. (+info)
Relationships between several markers of extracellular matrix turn-over and ultrasonography in human Schistosomiasis mansoni.
We measured the concentrations of several serum and urinary fibrosis markers, which are metabolites of extracellular matrix, in schistosomiasis patients to investigate their relationship with the ultrasonographic scoring system and with parasitologic data. This study was conducted in patients with various stages of the disease evaluated by ultrasonography (intestinal disease with no organ involvement, with minor hepatosplenic involvement and with severe disease) and in endemic controls. The level of hyaluronan, which were increased in infected patients compared with controls (P < 0.01), was the only fibrosis marker that correlated with the ultrasonographic score (P = 0.003) and is thus a potential serum marker of schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Urinary free pyridinoline levels were lower (P < 0.001) in infected patients with fibrosis (score > or = 1) than in nonfibrotic patients. A two-year follow-up of the patients treated with praziquantel showed that type I collagen and hyaluronan decreased during the first year post-treatment, whereas free pyridinolines peaked after 12 months and decreased thereafter. (+info)
Preventive effect of artemether on schistosome infection.
OBJECTIVE: To study the preventive effect of artemether (Art) in protecting the people from schistosome infection during flood fighting in schistosomiasis endemic area of Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province. METHODS: From mid July to mid August in 1996, the water level in Poyang Lake rose due to torrential rains and 2 embankments, Zhedi and Jiangtongdi, which appeared in dangerous situation and were selected as the pilot spots. After those who went to fight against flood arrived at the pilots their sera were collected within 48 hours and were examined with indirect hemagglutination test (IHA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and McAb-ELISA. Individuals with negative outcome in the 3 tests were then selected as the study subjects and were allocated randomly to the Art or the control group. The first dose of Art given to the individuals contacted with the infested water within 11-15 days was 6 mg/kg. If the individual continually contacted the infested water, the same dose of Art was given once every 15 days. After the individuals withdrew from the pilot, one more dose of Art was administered 7-15 days later. Placebo (starch) was given to individuals in the control group at the same period as in artemether group. Stool examinations were made in both groups 40-50 days after the last medication for evaluation of the preventive effect of artemether. Double blind method was used in the administration of both artemether and placebo. RESULTS: In Zhedi pilot, the individuals fought against flood for about 1 month. In Art group, 99 individuals receiving 3 doses of the drug completed the stool examination with egg-positive rate of 4% and no acute schistosomiasis was seen. In the control group, among 110 people who completed the observation, 44 were egg-positive with an infection rate of 40%, and 29 were identified as having acute schistosomiasis. In Jiangtondi, the studied individuals contacted the infested water for only about 4 hours. But in the control group 4 out of 102 individuals were egg-positive, while none of the 103 individuals in Art group receiving 2 doses of the drug showed schistosome infection. No apparent side effect was seen in the people treated with artemether. CONCLUSION: After oral Art was given to the people fighting against flood in schistosomiasis endemic area of Poyang Lake, it was shown that the oral Art has a promising effect on controlling acute schistosomiasis and reducing the infection rate. (+info)
Effect of artemether on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and pyruvate kinase of Schistosoma japonicum harbored in mice.
AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) of S japanicum. METHODS: Mice infected with schistosome cercariae for 32-38 d were treated ig with Art 100-300 mg.kg-1 and killed 24-72 h after medication for collection of schistosomes. The activities of GAPDH, PGK, and PK of the worms were determined by measuring the formation of NADH or consumption of NAD. The lactate content of the worms was also measured. RESULTS: After the infected mice were treated ig with Art 300 mg.kg-1 for 24 h, the inhibition rates of GAPDH were 13% (Male) and 21% (Female), and 48 h later the inhibition rates of the enzyme were 6% (Male) and 28% (Female). When Art 300 mg.kg-1 was given to infected mice for 24 h and 48 h, the inhibition rates of PGK were 60% (Male) and 48% (Female) as well as 75% (Male) and 62% (Female), respectively. Similar results were seen in PK activity. At 72 h after treatment the reduction rate of lactate content in Female worm was 72%, while that of Male was 48%. CONCLUSION: In the glycolytic pathway of both Male and Female schistosomes, PGK and PK activities were inhibited by Art. The GAPDH activity of Female worms was also susceptible to Art, While that of Male worms showed only temporary inhibition after treatment with Art. The Art reduced lactate content more in Female than in Male worms. (+info)