Seckel syndrome with polyarteritis nodosa.
Seckel syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with a typical "bird-headed" appearance. It could affect many organ systems but renal involvement is uncommon. Polyarteritis nodosa is systemic vasculitic disorder which also involves kidneys. We report a case of Seckel syndrome in a 9 year-old boy with renal involvement due to polyarteritis nodosa. According to the literature, this is the first report of polyarteritis nodosa in Seckel syndrome. (+info)
Anaemia as a contributor to morbidity and mortality in congestive heart failure.
Anaemia is present in approximately 40% of cases of congestive heart failure (CHF) and is associated with a higher mortality, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, a lower cardiac functional status, a higher rate of hospitalization, signs of malnutrition, a lower exercise capacity, a progressive fall in renal function, an increased need for high dose diuretics, hyponatraemia, an increased plasma volume, a reduced red cell volume and a lower quality of life. In both uncontrolled and controlled studies, correction of the anaemia with subcutaneous erythropoietin and, in some cases, with the addition of intravenous iron, has been shown to improve these parameters. A vicious circle is present between CHF, chronic kidney insufficiency (CKI) and anaemia, each capable of causing or being caused by the other, the so-called cardio renal syndrome. If larger randomized, controlled, double-blind studies confirm these observations, correction of the anaemia may prove to be a useful addition to the prevention and progression of both CHF and CKI. Cooperation between nephrologists, cardiologists and other internists to identify and treat these anaemic CHF patients early will help prevent progression of both the cardiac and renal disease. (+info)
Effect of pravastatin in people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease.
Although diabetes is a major cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), limited data describe the cardiovascular benefit of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) in people with both of these conditions. This study sought to determine whether pravastatin reduced the incidence of first or recurrent cardiovascular events in people with non-dialysis-dependent CKD and concomitant diabetes, using data from three randomized trials of pravastatin 40 mg daily versus placebo. CKD was defined by estimated GFR <60 or 60 to 89.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with proteinuria. Of 19,737 patients, 4099 (20.8%) had CKD but not diabetes at baseline, 873 (4.4%) had diabetes but not CKD, and 571 (2.9%) had both conditions. The primary composite outcome was time to myocardial infarction, coronary death, or percutaneous/surgical coronary revascularization. Median follow-up was 64 mo. After adjustment for trial and random treatment assignment, the incidence of the primary outcome was lowest in individuals with neither CKD nor diabetes (15.2%), intermediate in individuals with only CKD (18.6%) or only diabetes (21.3%), and highest in individuals with both characteristics (27.0%). Pravastatin reduced the relative likelihood of the primary outcome to a similar extent in subgroups defined by the presence or absence of CKD and diabetes. For example, pravastatin was associated with a significant reduction in the relative risk of the primary outcome by 25% in patients with CKD and concomitant diabetes and by 24% in individuals with neither characteristic. However, the absolute reduction in the risk of the primary outcome as a result of pravastatin use was highest in patients with both CKD and diabetes (6.4%) and lowest in individuals with neither characteristic (3.5%). In conclusion, stage 2 or early stage 3 CKD and diabetes both are associated with higher cardiovascular risk, and pravastatin reduces cardiovascular event rates in people with neither, one, or both characteristics. Given the high absolute benefit of pravastatin in patient with diabetes and stage 2 or early stage 3 CKD, this population in particular should be targeted for widespread use of statins. Additional studies are needed to determine whether these benefits apply to patients with more severe CKD, and recruitment to such studies should be given high priority. (+info)
Connections between vascular calcification and progression of chronic kidney disease: therapeutic alternatives.
We have shown that renal injury and chronic kidney disease (CKD) directly inhibit skeletal anabolism, and that stimulation of bone formation decreases the serum phosphate. Most recently, these observations were rediscovered in low-density lipoprotein receptor null mice fed high-fat/cholesterol diets, a model of the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance). We had demonstrated that these mice have vascular calcification (VC) of both the intimal atherosclerotic type and medial type. We have shown that VC is worsened by CKD and ameliorated by bone morphogenetic protein -7 (BMP-7). The finding that high-fat-fed low-density lipoprotein receptor null animals without CKD have hyperphosphatemia led us to examine the skeletons of these mice. We found significant reductions in bone formation rates, associated with increased VC and superimposing CKD results in the adynamic bone disorder (ABD), while VC was worsened and hyperphosphatemia persisted. A pathological link between abnormal bone mineralization and VC through the serum phosphorus was demonstrated by the partial effectiveness of directly reducing the serum phosphate by a phosphate binder that had no skeletal action. BMP-7 treatment corrected the ABD and corrected hyperphosphatemia, compatible with BMP-7-driven stimulation of skeletal phosphate deposition reducing plasma phosphate and thereby removing a major stimulus to VC. Thus, in the metabolic syndrome with CKD, a reduction in bone-forming potential of osteogenic cells leads to ABD producing hyperphosphatemia and VC, processes ameliorated by the skeletal anabolic agent BMP-7, in part through increased bone formation and skeletal deposition of phosphate, and in part through direct actions on vascular smooth muscle cells. We have demonstrated that the processes leading to vascular calcification begin with even mild levels of renal injury before demonstrable hyperphosphatemia, and they are preventable and treatable. Therefore, early intervention in CKD is warranted and may affect mortality of the disease. (+info)
Apolipoprotein A-IV predicts progression of chronic kidney disease: the mild to moderate kidney disease study.
It has not been established firmly whether dyslipidemia contributes independently to the progression of kidney disease. Lipid and lipoprotein parameters, including levels of total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol; triglycerides; lipoprotein(a); apolipoprotein A-IV; and the apolipoprotein E and A-IV polymorphisms, were assessed in 177 patients who had mostly mild to moderate renal insufficiency and were followed prospectively for up to 7 yr. Progression of kidney disease was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine and/or terminal renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy. In univariate analysis, patients who reached a progression end point (n = 65) were significantly older and had higher serum creatinine and proteinuria as well as lower GFR and hemoglobin levels. In addition, baseline apolipoprotein A-IV and triglyceride concentrations were higher and HDL cholesterol levels were lower. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that baseline GFR (hazard ratio 0.714; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.627 to 0.814 for an increment of 10 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); P < 0.0001) and serum apolipoprotein A-IV concentrations (hazard ratio 1.062; 95% CI 1.018 to 1.108 for an increment of 1 mg/dl; P = 0.006) were significant predictors of disease progression. Patients with apolipoprotein A-IV levels above the median had a significantly faster progression (P < 0.0001), and their mean follow-up time to a progression end point was 53.7 mo (95% CI 47.6 to 59.8) as compared with 70.0 mo (95% CI 64.6 to 75.4) in patients with apolipoprotein A-IV levels below the median. For the apolipoprotein E polymorphism, only the genotype epsilon2/epsilon4 was associated with an increased risk for progression. In summary, this prospective study in patients with nondiabetic primary kidney disease demonstrated that apolipoprotein A-IV concentration is a novel independent predictor of progression. (+info)
Efficacy and safety of benazepril for advanced chronic renal insufficiency.
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors provide renal protection in patients with mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency (serum creatinine level, 3.0 mg per deciliter or less). We assessed the efficacy and safety of benazepril in patients without diabetes who had advanced renal insufficiency. METHODS: We enrolled 422 patients in a randomized, double-blind study. After an eight-week run-in period, 104 patients with serum creatinine levels of 1.5 to 3.0 mg per deciliter (group 1) received 20 mg of benazepril per day, whereas 224 patients with serum creatinine levels of 3.1 to 5.0 mg per deciliter (group 2) were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg of benazepril per day (112 patients) or placebo (112 patients) and then followed for a mean of 3.4 years. All patients received conventional antihypertensive therapy. The primary outcome was the composite of a doubling of the serum creatinine level, end-stage renal disease, or death. Secondary end points included changes in the level of proteinuria and the rate of progression of renal disease. RESULTS: Of 102 patients in group 1, 22 (22 percent) reached the primary end point, as compared with 44 of 108 patients given benazepril in group 2 (41 percent) and 65 of 107 patients given placebo in group 2 (60 percent). As compared with placebo, benazepril was associated with a 43 percent reduction in the risk of the primary end point in group 2 (P=0.005). This benefit did not appear to be attributable to blood-pressure control. Benazepril therapy was associated with a 52 percent reduction in the level of proteinuria and a reduction of 23 percent in the rate of decline in renal function. The overall incidence of major adverse events in the benazepril and placebo subgroups of group 2 was similar. CONCLUSIONS: Benazepril conferred substantial renal benefits in patients without diabetes who had advanced renal insufficiency. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00270426.) (+info)
Effect of chronic renal insufficiency on hepatic and renal udp-glucuronyltransferases in rats.
Significant evidence exists regarding altered CYP450 enzymes in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), although none exists for the phase II enzymes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of CRI on hepatic and renal UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. Three groups of rats were included: CRI induced by the 5/6th nephrectomy model, control, and control pair-fed (CPF) rats. UGT activities were determined in liver and kidney microsomes by the 3- and 17-glucuronidation of beta-estradiol (E2-3G and E2-17G), glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MUG), and 3-glucuronidation of morphine (M3G). UGT isoforms responsible for these catalytic activities were screened using recombinant rat UGT1A1, UGT1A2, UGT1A3, UGT1A7, UGT2B2, UGT2B3, and UGT2B8. UGT protein levels were examined by Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies. There was no significant difference between CRI and CPF rats in hepatic and/or renal E2-3G (UGT1A1), E2-17G (UGT2B3), 4-MUG (UGT1A6), and M3G (UGT2B1) formation. Formation of E2-17G and 4-MUG in the liver and E2-3G and 4-MUG in the kidney was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in CPF and CRI rats compared with control rats. The down-regulated glucuronidation activities were accompanied by corresponding reductions in protein content of specific UGT isoforms. These results suggest that CRI does not seem to influence the protein levels or catalytic activity of most of the major hepatic or renal UGT enzymes. The observed down-regulation of hepatic and renal UGTs in CRI and CPF rats could be caused by restricted food intake in these groups of rats. (+info)
Chronic kidney disease: a public health problem that needs a public health action plan.
For a health problem or condition to be considered a public health issue, four criteria must be met: 1) the health condition must place a large burden on society, a burden that is getting larger despite existing control efforts; 2) the burden must be distributed unfairly (i.e., certain segments of the population are unequally affected); 3) there must be evidence that upstream preventive strategies could substantially reduce the burden of the condition; and 4) such preventive strategies are not yet in place. Chronic kidney disease meets these criteria for a public health issue. Therefore, as a complement to clinical approaches to controlling it, a broad and coordinated public health approach will be necessary to meet the burgeoning health, economic, and societal challenges of chronic kidney disease. (+info)