Bone marrow scintigraphy using technetium-99m antigranulocyte antibody in malignant lymphomas.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical reliability of immunoscintigraphy (IS) to detect infiltration of the bone marrow in patients with malignant lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Whole body IS was performed in 103 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) using Tc-99m labelled anti-NCA-95 which allows visualization of the granulopoietic bone marrow. Of these, 52% were studied prior to any therapy. Findings were compared to posterior iliac crest biopsy as well as MRI and/or follow-up examination. Criteria of marrow infiltration were a positive biopsy, positive follow-up, or positive results of MRI. RESULTS: Comparison of IS and biospy revealed concordant findings in 69 and discordant findings in 34 of 103 patients. Of the 34 patients with discordant results, IS showed lesions suspicious of bone marrow infiltration in 29 patients despite normal biopsy findings. When follow-up and additional examinations were taken into consideration, 10 patients remained with probably false positive and five with false negative IS findings. IS proved to be highly sensitive and specific in patients with HD (100% and 84%, respectively) and high-grade NHL (93% and 84%, respectively). Moderate sensitivity (60%) was found in low-grade NHL. This was possibly due to false negative IS in three to five patients with chemotherapy in contrast to one of five false negative results in patients without chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Bone marrow scintigraphy using antigranulocyte antibodies is highly sensitive in HD and high-grade NHL. Positive findings in IS subsequent to a negative biopsy should be followed by guided re-biopsy or MRI. (+info)
Primary hepatic carcinoid in a renal transplant patient.
There seems to be a world-wide increase in the incidence of tumors among immunosuppressed patients. Of 1350 renal allografts transplanted in the past 23 years at the Department of Transplantation and Surgery, 56 cases were malignant tumors. The case of a 58-year-old female patient is reported, with disseminated primary carcinoid in the liver detected 86 days after renal transplantation. According to the literature only 39 patients with primary liver carcinoids have been reported until 1997, but this is the first where the carcinoid developed in an immunosuppressed patient. The rapid progression of the carcinoid could be associated with the immunosuppression. (+info)
Biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and pharmacokinetics of 111In-antimyosin in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.
In view of the established role of 111In-antimyosin in the detection of heart muscle pathology, radiation dose estimates were made for this substance. Biodistribution and biokinetic data were obtained from our studies, which failed to show abnormal uptake of 111In-antimyosin in localized sites of skeletal muscle involvement in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: After intravenous administration of 74 MBq (2 mCi) 111In-antimyosin, gamma camera scintigraphy was performed in 12 adult patients with inflammatory muscle disease and in 2 control patients. Six whole-body scans were performed over 72 h, and uptake of 111In-antimyosin in organs was quantified using an attenuation-corrected conjugate counting method. Residence times in source organs were used with MIRDOSE software to obtain radiation dose estimates. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from serial whole-blood and plasma 111In concentrations. RESULTS: The tracer cleared slowly from the circulation, and highest organ uptakes were found in the marrow and liver; kidneys showed the highest concentrations. Uptake was also evident in spleen, the facial image and male genitalia. CONCLUSION: For a typical administered activity of 74 MBq 111In-antimyosin, the kidneys receive the highest dose (58 mSv), and the effective dose is 11 mSv. Radioactivity was cleared from plasma at an average rate of 136 mL/h, and the mean steady-state distribution was approximately 5 L plasma. (+info)
A novel immunoscintigraphy technique using metabolizable linker with angiotensin II treatment.
Immunoscintigraphy is a tumour imaging technique that can have specificity, but high background radioactivity makes it difficult to obtain tumour imaging soon after the injection of radioconjugate. The aim of this study is to see whether clear tumour images can be obtained soon after injection of a radiolabelled reagent using a new linker with antibody fragments (Fab), in conditions of induced hypertension in mice. Fab fragments of a murine monoclonal antibody against human osteosarcoma were labelled with radioiodinated 3'-iodohippuryl N-epsilon-maleoyl-L-lysine (HML) and were injected intravenously to tumour-bearing mice. Angiotensin II was administered for 4 h before and for 1 h after the injection of radiolabelled Fab. Kidney uptake of 125I-labelled-HML-Fab was much lower than that of 125I-labelled-Fab radioiodinated by the chloramine-T method, and the radioactivity of tumour was increased approximately two-fold by angiotensin II treatment at 3 h after injection, indicating high tumour-to-normal tissue ratios. A clear tumour image was obtained with 131I-labelled-HML-Fab at 3 h post-injection. The use of HML as a radiolabelling reagent, combined with angiotensin II treatment, efficiently improved tumour targeting and enabled the imaging of tumours. These results suggest the feasibility of PET scan using antibody fragment labelled with 18F-fluorine substitute for radioiodine. (+info)
Radiation dosimetry of a 99mTc-labeled IgM murine antibody to CD15 antigens on human granulocytes.
99mTc-labeled anti-stage specific embryonic antigen-1 (anti-SSEA-1) is an injectable IgM antibody derived from mice. It binds to CD15 antigens on some granulocytic subpopulations of human white blood cells in vivo after systemic administration. The purpose of this study was to measure biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled anti-SSEA-1 and perform radiation dosimetry in 10 healthy human volunteers. METHODS: Transmission scans and whole-body images were acquired sequentially on a dual-head camera for 32 h after the intravenous administration of about 370 MBq (10.0 mCi) of the radiopharmaceutical. Renal excretion fractions were measured from 10 to 14 discrete urine specimens voided over 27.9 +/- 2.0 h. Multiexponential functions were fit iteratively to the time-activity curves for 17 regions of interest using a nonlinear least squares regression algorithm. The curves were integrated numerically to yield source organ residence times. Gender-specific radiation doses were then estimated individually for each subject, using the MIRD technique, before any results were averaged. RESULTS: Quantification showed that the kidneys excreted 39.5% +/- 6.5% of the administered dose during the first 24 h after administration. Image analysis showed that 10%-14% of the radioactivity went to the spleen, while more than 40% went to the liver. Residence times were longest in the liver (3.37 h), followed by the bone marrow (1.09 h), kidneys (0.84 h) and the spleen (0.65 h). The dose-limiting organ in both men and women was the spleen, which received an average of 0.062 mGy/MBq (0.23 rad/mCi, range 0.08-0.30 rad/mCi), followed by the kidneys (0.051 mGy/MBq), liver (0.048 mGy/MBq) and urinary bladder (0.032 mGy/MBq). The effective dose equivalent was 0.018 mSv/MBq (0.068 rem/mCi). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the radiation dosimetry profile for this new infection imaging agent is highly favorable. (+info)
99mTc-labeled antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor antibody in patients with tumors of epithelial origin: Part III. Clinical trials safety and diagnostic efficacy.
Monoclonal antibody (moAb) ior egf/r3 is an IgG2a that recognizes the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the 99mTc-labeled moAb ior egf/r3 for the detection of epithelial-derived tumors, their metastases and recurrences. METHODS: One hundred forty-eight adult patients (51 women, 97 men; mean age 53 +/- 13 y) who were suspected of having cancer of epithelial origin were administered 3 mg/50 mCi (1.85 GBq) 99mTc-labeled moAb ior egf/r3 by intravenous bolus injection. Planar anterior and posterior images of the lesion sites and suspected metastases were acquired at 2, 4, 6 and 24 h after injection, and SPECT images were scanned at 5 h postinjection, using a 360 degrees circular orbit with 64 images. The backprojection method was used for image reconstruction with a Hamming-Hann filter. RESULTS: Labeling efficiency was always greater than 98.5% +/- 2.1 %. No adverse reactions or side effects were observed. Results of the biopsy specimens showed that 85.1% (126/148) of the patients had tumors of epithelial origin, 14.2% (21/148) were negative and 0.7% (1/148) had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The sensitivity rate by organ was as follows: brain (8/8, 100%), digestive tract (10/11, 90.9%), head and neck (17/23, 73.9%), lung (52/62, 83.9%) and breast (16/18, 88.9%). Overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of the immunoscintigraphic imaging were 84.2% (106/126), 100.0% (22/22), 86.5% (128/148), 100% (106/106) and 52.4% (22/42), respectively. New metastases not identified previously by other diagnostic methods were detected in the 50% of the patients. CONCLUSION: Immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled moAb ior egf/r3 could be a useful procedure for the diagnosis and follow-up of the patients with tumors of epithelial origin. (+info)
In vivo and in vitro characterizations of three 99mTc-labeled monoclonal antibody G250 preparations.
In previous clinical studies, excellent visualization of tumor lesions has been observed with 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) G250 in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In several cases, 131I-cG250 immunoscintigraphy disclosed tumor lesions that were not visualized by radiography or CT. To improve image quality, we aimed to develop a 99mTc-labeled mAb G250 preparation for radioimmunodetection of RCC. We studied in vitro stability, biodistribution and imaging potential of three 99mTc-labeled G250 preparations in nude mice with subcutaneous RCC xenografts.125I-G250 and the nonspecific mAb 131I-MN14 were used as control antibodies. METHODS: The mAb G250 was labeled with 99mTc according to three methods using: (a) S-hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC), (b) S-benzoylmercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and (c) a direct labeling method (Schwarz method). The stability of all preparations was tested in serum at 37 degrees C during 48 h. In addition, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, cysteine and glutathione challenge assays were performed. RESULTS: All preparations showed good stability in serum during the 48-h incubation period. 99mTc-G250 (Schwarz) showed release of the radiolabel at a 100-fold or higher molar excess of cysteine and at a 10,000-fold or higher molar excess of glutathione. 99mTc-MAG3-G250 showed release of the radiolabel at a 10,000-fold molar excess of cysteine. 99mTc-HYNIC-G250 was stable under all conditions. Tumors were clearly visualized with all preparations. 99mTc-G250 (Schwarz) showed significantly lower blood levels (3.8 %ID/g) compared with all other preparations (11.2, 13.4 and 13.4 %ID/g for 99mTc-HYNIC-G250, 99mTc-MAG3-G250 and 125I-G250, respectively, 48 h postinjection). At 48-h postinjection, mean tumor uptake was very high with all mAb G250 preparations: 92.4 (99mTc-HYNIC-G250), 125.9 (99mTc-MAG3-G250), 29.4 (99mTc-G250 Schwarz) and 75.4 (125I-G250) %ID/g. Mean tumor uptake of the nonspecific 131I-MN14 mAb was 6.6 %ID/g. CONCLUSION: In this study, 99mTc-HYNIC-G250 showed excellent in vitro stability and tumor targeting. Moreover, this preparation could be labeled with high efficiency (>95%) at room temperature within 15 min. Therefore, 99mTc-HYNIC-G250 seems to be an ideal candidate for radioimmunodetection of RCC. (+info)
Favorable effects of glycolate conjugation on the biodistribution of humanized antiTac Fab fragment.
One of the major limitations of using intact immunoglobulins for targeting tumors is poor penetration into tissues. Although Fab fragments have been used because of their improved kinetics, they have undesirable high renal accumulation. In this study we tested a new approach to block renal accumulation of Fab. METHODS: We conjugated humanized antiTac Fab fragments, which are directed against the interleukin-2 receptor, with glycolate. The biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and catabolism of glycolated Fab (glyco-Fab) were evaluated at two different levels of substitution (heavy and light) compared with nonglycolated Fab in Tac-antigen-positive (ATAC4) and -negative (A431) tumor-bearing nude mice. The mice received coinjections of 125I-labeled glyco-Fab (3 microCi/1 microg) and 131I-labeled nonglycolated Fab (5 microCi/1 microg). In addition, groups of mice receiving these reagents were also coinfused with 50 mg L-lysine. RESULTS: Significantly less glyco-Fab than nonglycolated Fab accumulated in the kidney (21 versus 189 %ID/g; P < 0.001). A higher proportion of glyco-Fab was excreted into the urine in its intact form. The glyco-Fab survived longer in circulation than nonglycolated Fab. The peak tumor accumulation of glyco-Fab was 2.3-fold greater than that of nonglycolated Fab. Furthermore, the ATAC4 tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of glyco-Fab was much higher in all organs than that of nonglycolated Fab. The heavily glyco-Fab accumulated less in the kidney than the lightly glyco-Fab. The coinjected lysine reduced the renal accumulation of both nonglycolated Fab and glyco-Fab. CONCLUSION: Glyco-Fab is a promising agent because of its lower renal accumulation, higher tumor uptake and higher tumor-to-normal tissue ratio. (+info)