Pathways of electron transfer in Escherichia coli DNA photolyase: Trp306 to FADH.
We describe the results of a series of theoretical calculations of electron transfer pathways between Trp306 and *FADH. in the Escherichia coli DNA photolyase molecule, using the method of interatomic tunneling currents. It is found that there are two conformationally orthogonal tryptophans, Trp359 and Trp382, between donor and acceptor that play a crucial role in the pathways of the electron transfer process. The pathways depend vitally on the aromaticity of tryptophans and the flavin molecule. The results of this calculation suggest that the major pathway of the electron transfer is due to a set of overlapping orthogonal pi-rings, which starts from the donor Trp306, runs through Trp359 and Trp382, and finally reaches the flavin group of the acceptor complex, FADH. (+info
Spectrum of p53 gene mutations suggests a possible role for ultraviolet radiation in the pathogenesis of advanced cutaneous lymphomas.
There is evidence that the incidence of primary cutaneous lymphoma, like other forms of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is increasing, yet little is known of the pathogenetic events involved in this group of disorders. In this study we examine the frequency and spectrum of P53 gene mutations in a large series of primary cutaneous lymphomas, with particular emphasis on tumor stage mycosis fungoides, as it is in these cases that p53 overexpression has previously been reported. Sixty-six samples from 55 patients with primary cutaneous B cell and T cell lymphomas were analyzed for mutations in exons 5-9 of the P53 gene using polymerase chain reaction/single strand conformational polymorphism, and subsequent cloning and sequencing of genomic DNA. Fourteen separate P53 mutations were identified in blood, skin, and lymph node samples in 13 patients (24%). Twelve of 14 mutations occurred at dipyrimidine sites, eight resulting in C-->T transitions and one in a CC-->TT tandem base transition, a mutation spectrum strikingly similar to that reported in nonmelanoma skin cancer and characteristic of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet B radiation. In the subset of patients with mycosis fungoides, P53 mutations were identified in six of 17 patients with tumor-stage but in none of 12 patients with plaque-stage disease (Fisher's exact test p = 0.027). These data suggest a role for ultraviolet radiation in the pathogenesis of primary cutaneous lymphomas and a possible ultraviolet B-related step in the progression of mycosis fungoides from plaque to tumor-stage disease. (+info
In situ repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts in human skin exposed to solar simulating radiation.
DNA repair is crucial to the integrity of the human genome. The ultraviolet radiation portion of solar radiation is responsible for the rising incidence of skin cancer, one of the most common types of cancer in humans. We applied a recently developed 32P-postlabeling technique to measure the in situ DNA repair efficiency of solar-simulated radiation induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts in the skin of nine healthy volunteers with skin type II. Our results show about 6-fold interindividual variations in the level of DNA damage after exposure to an equal biologic dose - 2 minimal erythema doses. The kinetics of DNA repair indicated a base sequence dependence of the repair process. The DNA repair efficiency showed a 20-fold difference in volunteers. An age-related decrease of DNA repair capacity was observed; however, the data are limited due to a small number of subjects and a narrow age range. The variable response in DNA damage levels and individual differences in DNA repair efficiency suggest a susceptible subgroup of people probably with a higher skin cancer risk. (+info
The catalytic mechanism of a pyrimidine dimer-specific glycosylase (pdg)/abasic lyase, Chlorella virus-pdg.
The repair of UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers can proceed via the base excision repair pathway, in which the initial step is catalyzed by DNA glycosylase/abasic (AP) lyases. The prototypical enzyme studied for this pathway is endonuclease V from the bacteriophage T4 (T4 bacteriophage pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (T4-pdg)). The first homologue for T4-pdg has been found in a strain of Chlorella virus (strain Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1), which contains a gene that predicts an amino acid sequence homology of 41% with T4-pdg. Because both the structure and critical catalytic residues are known for T4-pdg, homology modeling of the Chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (cv-pdg) predicted that a conserved glutamic acid residue (Glu-23) would be important for catalysis at pyrimidine dimers and abasic sites. Site-directed mutations were constructed at Glu-23 to assess the necessity of a negatively charged residue at that position (Gln-23) and the importance of the length of the negatively charged side chain (Asp-23). E23Q lost glycosylase activity completely but retained low levels of AP lyase activity. In contrast, E23D retained near wild type glycosylase and AP lyase activities on cis-syn dimers but completely lost its activity on the trans-syn II dimer, which is very efficiently cleaved by the wild type cv-pdg. As has been shown for other glyscosylases, the wild type cv-pdg catalyzes the cleavage at dimers or AP sites via formation of an imino intermediate, as evidenced by the ability of the enzyme to be covalently trapped on substrate DNA when the reactions are carried out in the presence of a strong reducing agent; in contrast, E23D was very poorly trapped on cis-syn dimers but was readily trapped on DNA containing AP sites. It is proposed that Glu-23 protonates the sugar ring, so that the imino intermediate can be formed. (+info
Substrate specificity of ultraviolet DNA endonuclease (UVDE/Uve1p) from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe ultraviolet DNA endonuclease (UVDE or Uve1p) has been shown to cleave 5' to UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts (6-4PP). This endonuclease is believed to function in the initial step in an alternative excision repair pathway for the removal of DNA damage caused by exposure to UV light. An active truncated form of this protein, Delta228-Uve1p, has been successfully overexpressed, affinity purified and partially characterized. In the present study we present data from a detailed substrate specificity trial. We have determined that the substrate range of Uve1p is much greater than was originally believed. We demonstrate that this DNA damage repair protein is capable of recognizing an array of UV-induced DNA photoproducts (cis-syn-, trans-syn I- and trans-syn II CPDs, 6-4PP and Dewar isomers) that cause varying degrees of distortion in a duplex DNA molecule. We also demonstrate that Uve1p recognizes non-UV-induced DNA damage, such as platinum-DNA GG diadducts, uracil, dihydrouracil and abasic sites. This is the first time that a single DNA repair endonuclease with the ability to recognize such a diverse range of lesions has been described. This study suggests that Uve1p and the alternative excision repair pathway may participate broadly in the repair of DNA damage. (+info
Benzimidazolium triflate-activated synthesis of (6-4) photoproduct-containing oligonucleotides and its application.
In the solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing the pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproduct using a dinucleotide building block, considerable amounts of by-products were found as the chain length increased. The by-products were the major product when a 49mer was synthesized on a 40 nmol scale. It was assumed that these by-products were formed by the coupling of phosphoramidites with the N3 imino function of the 5' component of the (6-4) photoproduct. We examined imidazolium triflate and benzimidazolium triflate to find an alternative activator for DNA synthesis. Imidazolium triflate prevented by-product formation to some extent, but the coupling yields were low. Benzimidazolium triflate was comparable to tetrazole in coupling efficiency and reduced by-product formation to a great extent, without modification of the synthesizer program. The obtained 49mer was used to detect proteins that recognize UV-damaged DNA in HeLa cell extracts. Two major protein-DNA complexes were found when a 49mer duplex was used as probe, while a 30mer duplex failed to detect one of them. This application showed the usefulness of long chain 'damaged' oligonucleotides in biochemical studies. (+info
The relative expression of mutated XPB genes results in xeroderma pigmentosum/Cockayne's syndrome or trichothiodystrophy cellular phenotypes.
The human XPB DNA helicase is a subunit of the DNA repair/basal transcription factor TFIIH, involved in early steps of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Two distinct clinical phenotypes, xeroderma pigmentosum associated with Cockayne's syndrome (XP/CS) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD), can be due to mutations in the XPB gene. In the present work, we studied cellular DNA repair properties of skin fibro-blasts from two patients mutated in the XPB gene: an XP/CS patient cell (XPCS2BA) with a T296C (F99S) transition and a TTD patient cell (TTD6VI) exhibiting an A355C (T119P) transversion. Both cells are clearly associated with different levels of alterations in their response to UV light. To establish the relationship between the relative expression level of these two alleles and DNA repair properties, we transfected SV40-transformed XPCS2BA (XPCS2BASV) cells with a plasmid (pTTD6VI) carrying the XPB-A355C cDNA and examined DNA repair properties after UV irradiation (cell survival, unscheduled DNA synthesis and kinetics of photoproduct removal) in stable transfectants. We isolated three clones, which express the XPB-A355C gene (Cl-5) or the XPB-T296C gene (Cl-14) or both genes (Cl-19). This con-stitutes a model system allowing us to correlate the relative expression levels of the XPB-A355C (TTD) and XPB-T296C (XP/CS) genes with various DNA repair properties. Overexpression of the XPB-A355C (TTD) gene in an XP/CS cell gives rise to a cellular phenotype of increased repair similar to that of TTD6VI cells, while equal expression of the two mutated genes leads to an intermediate cellular phenotype between XP/CS and TTD. (+info
DNA repair of pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts in the ribosomal DNA.
The nucleolus is a unique structural component of interphase nuclei where the ribosomal genes, trans-cribed by RNA polymerase I (RNA pol I), are organized. In the present study, the repair of UV-induced photolesions was investigated in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in relation to RNA pol I transcription. We used hamster cells because their repair phenotype permits the separate analysis of the major photo-products induced by UV light. Immunofluorescent labeling of UV-induced DNA repair and transcription sites showed that the nucleolar regions were defic-ient in DNA repair despite the presence of abundant RNA pol I transcription foci. Immunological staining indicated that various NER proteins, including TFIIH (subunits p62 and p89), p53, Gadd 45 and prolifer-ating cell nuclear antigen are all enriched in the nuclei but distinctly absent in nucleoli. This lack of enrichment of NER factors in the nucleolus may be responsible for the inefficient repair of photo-products in the rDNA. UV irradiation generates two major photoproducts, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and the 6-4 photoproducts (6-4 PPs). The repair kinetics of these two lesions were assessed simultaneously by the immunological isolation of bromodeoxyuridine (BudR) containing excision repair patches using an antibody to BudR. We found that the repair of the photolesions was less efficient in the rDNA compared to that of the endo-genous housekeeping gene, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Gene specific repair of each of these two photoproducts was then measured separately in the rDNA and in the DHFR gene, which is transcribed by RNA pol II. The removal of CPDs was deficient in the rDNA as compared to the DHFR gene. On the contrary, 6-4 PPs were removed efficiently from the rDNA although somewhat slower than from the DHFR gene. The relatively efficient repair of 6-4 PPs in the rDNA is consistent with the notion that the 6-4 PPs are repaired efficiently in different genomic regions by the global genome repair pathway. (+info