Contribution of mitochondrial proton leak to respiration rate in working skeletal muscle and liver and to SMR.
Proton pumping across the mitochondrial inner membrane and proton leak back through the natural proton conductance pathway make up a futile cycle that dissipates redox energy. We measured respiration and average mitochondrial membrane potential in perfused rat hindquarter with maximal tetanic contraction of the left gastrocnemius-soleus-plantaris muscle group, and we estimate that the mitochondrial proton cycle accounted for 34% of the respiration rate of the preparation. Similar measurements in rat hepatocytes given substrates to cause a high rate of gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis showed that the proton cycle accounted for 22% of the respiration rate of these cells. Combining these in vitro values with literature values for the contribution of skeletal muscle and liver to standard metabolic rate (SMR), we calculate that the proton cycle in working muscle and liver may account for 15% of SMR in vivo. Although this value is less than the 20% of SMR we calculated previously using data from resting skeletal muscle and hepatocytes, it is still large, and we conclude that the futile proton cycle is a major contributor to SMR. (+info)
Ganglioside GM2-activator protein and vesicular transport in collecting duct intercalated cells.
This study describes the molecular characterization of an antigen defined by an autoantibody from a woman with habitual abortion as GM2-activator protein. The patient showed no disorder of renal function. Accidentally with routine serum screening for autoantibodies, an immunoreactivity was found in kidney collecting duct intercalated cells. Three distinct patterns of immunostaining of intercalated cells were observed: staining of the apical pole, basolateral pole, and diffuse cytoplasmic labeling. Ultrastructurally, the immunoreactivity was associated with "studs," which represent the cytoplasmic domain of the vacuolar proton pump in intercalated cells. This pump is subjected to a shuttling mechanism from cytoplasmic stores to the cell membrane, which exclusively occurs in intercalated cells. Peptide sequences of a 23-kD protein purified from rat kidney cortex showed complete identity with corresponding sequences of GM2-activator protein. In the brain, GM2-activator protein is required for hexosaminidase A to split a sugar from ganglioside GM2. Because neither ganglioside GM2 nor GM1 (its precursor) is present in significant amounts in the kidney, the previous finding that this tissue contains the highest level of activator protein in the body was confusing. In this study, a novel role for GM2-activator protein in intercalated cells is proposed, and possible roles in the shuttling mechanism are discussed. (+info)
Interpretation of the spatial charge displacements in bacteriorhodopsin in terms of structural changes during the photocycle.
We have recently introduced a method, made possible by an improved orienting technique using a combination of electric and magnetic fields, that allows the three-dimensional detection of the intramolecular charge displacements during the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin. This method generates electric asymmetry, a prerequisite for the detection of electric signal on the macroscopic sample, in all three spatial dimensions. Purple membrane fragments containing bacteriorhodopsin were oriented so that their permanent electric dipole moment vectors were perpendicular to the membrane plane and pointed in the same direction. The resulting cylindrical symmetry was broken by photoselection, i. e., by flash excitation with low intensity linearly polarized light. From the measured electric signals, the three-dimensional motion of the electric charge center in the bacteriorhodopsin molecules was calculated for the first 400 microseconds. Simultaneous absorption kinetic recording provided the time-dependent concentrations of the intermediates. Combining the two sets of data, we determined the discrete dipole moments of intermediates up to M. When compared with the results of current molecular dynamics calculations, the data provided a decisive experimental test for selecting the optimal theoretical model for the proton transport and should eventually lead to a full description of the mechanism of the bacteriorhodopsin proton pump. (+info)
cAMP-mediated catabolite repression and electrochemical potential-dependent production of an extracellular amylase in Vibrio alginolyticus.
Vibrio alginolyticus, a halophilic marine bacterium, produced an extracellular amylase with a molecular mass of approximately 56,000, and the amylase appeared to be subject to catabolite repression mediated by cAMP. The production of amylase at pH 6.5, at which the respiratory chain-linked H+ pump functions, was inhibited about 75% at 24 hours following the addition of 2 microM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), while the production at pH 8.5, at which the respiratory chain-linked Na+ pump functions, was only slightly inhibited by the addition of 2 microM CCCP. In contrast, the production of amylase in a mutant bacterium defective in the Na+ pump was almost completely inhibited even at pH 8.5 as well as pH 6.5 by the addition of 2 microM CCCP. (+info)
Apical proton secretion by the inner stripe of the outer medullary collecting duct.
The inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct (OMCDis) is unique among collecting duct segments because both intercalated cells and principal cells secrete protons and reabsorb luminal bicarbonate. The current study characterized the mechanisms of OMCDis proton secretion. We used in vitro microperfusion, and we separately studied the principal cell and intercalated cell using differential uptake of the fluorescent, pH-sensitive dye, 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Both the principal cell and intercalated cell secreted protons, as identified as Na+/H+ exchange-independent intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from an intracellular acid load. Two proton transport activities were identified in the principal cell; one was luminal potassium dependent and Sch-28080 sensitive and the other was luminal potassium independent and luminal bafilomycin A1 sensitive. Thus the OMCDis principal cell expresses both apical H+-K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase activity. Intercalated cell Na+/H+ exchange-independent pHi recovery was approximately twice that of the principal cell and was mediated by pharmacologically similar mechanisms. We conclude 1) the OMCDis principal cell may contribute to both luminal potassium reabsorption and urinary acidification, roles fundamentally different from those of the principal cell in the cortical collecting duct; and 2) the OMCDis intercalated cell proton transporters are functionally similar to those in the principal cell, raising the possibility that an H+-K+-ATPase similar to the one present in the principal cell may contribute to intercalated cell proton secretion. (+info)
Vacuolar and plasma membrane proton-adenosinetriphosphatases.
The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is one of the most fundamental enzymes in nature. It functions in almost every eukaryotic cell and energizes a wide variety of organelles and membranes. V-ATPases have similar structure and mechanism of action with F-ATPase and several of their subunits evolved from common ancestors. In eukaryotic cells, F-ATPases are confined to the semi-autonomous organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria, which contain their own genes that encode some of the F-ATPase subunits. In contrast to F-ATPases, whose primary function in eukaryotic cells is to form ATP at the expense of the proton-motive force (pmf), V-ATPases function exclusively as ATP-dependent proton pumps. The pmf generated by V-ATPases in organelles and membranes of eukaryotic cells is utilized as a driving force for numerous secondary transport processes. The mechanistic and structural relations between the two enzymes prompted us to suggest similar functional units in V-ATPase as was proposed to F-ATPase and to assign some of the V-ATPase subunit to one of four parts of a mechanochemical machine: a catalytic unit, a shaft, a hook, and a proton turbine. It was the yeast genetics that allowed the identification of special properties of individual subunits and the discovery of factors that are involved in the enzyme biogenesis and assembly. The V-ATPases play a major role as energizers of animal plasma membranes, especially apical plasma membranes of epithelial cells. This role was first recognized in plasma membranes of lepidopteran midgut and vertebrate kidney. The list of animals with plasma membranes that are energized by V-ATPases now includes members of most, if not all, animal phyla. This includes the classical Na+ absorption by frog skin, male fertility through acidification of the sperm acrosome and the male reproductive tract, bone resorption by mammalian osteoclasts, and regulation of eye pressure. V-ATPase may function in Na+ uptake by trout gills and energizes water secretion by contractile vacuoles in Dictyostelium. V-ATPase was first detected in organelles connected with the vacuolar system. It is the main if not the only primary energy source for numerous transport systems in these organelles. The driving force for the accumulation of neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles is pmf generated by V-ATPase. The acidification of lysosomes, which are required for the proper function of most of their enzymes, is provided by V-ATPase. The enzyme is also vital for the proper function of endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. In contrast to yeast vacuoles that maintain an internal pH of approximately 5.5, it is believed that the vacuoles of lemon fruit may have a pH as low as 2. Similarly, some brown and red alga maintain internal pH as low as 0.1 in their vacuoles. One of the outstanding questions in the field is how such a conserved enzyme as the V-ATPase can fulfill such diverse functions. (+info)
In situ determination of transient pKa changes of internal amino acids of bacteriorhodopsin by using time-resolved attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.
Active proton transfer through membrane proteins is accomplished by shifts in the acidity of internal amino acids, prosthetic groups, and water molecules. The recently introduced step-scan attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR/FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to determine transient pKa changes of single amino acid side chains of the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. The high pKa of D96 (>12 in the ground state) drops to 7.1 +/- 0.2 (in 1 M KCl) during the lifetime of the N intermediate, quantitating the role of D96 as the internal proton donor of the retinal Schiff base. We conclude from experiments on the pH dependence of the proton release reaction and on point mutants where each of the glutamates on the extracellular surface has been exchanged that besides D85 no other carboxylic group changes its protonation state during proton release. However, E194 and E204 interact with D85, the primary proton acceptor of the Schiff base proton. The C==O stretching vibration of D85 undergoes a characteristic pH-dependent shift in frequency during the M state of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin with a pKa of 5.2 (+/-0.3) which is abolished in the single-site mutants E194Q and E204Q and the quadruple mutant E9Q/E74Q/E194Q/E204Q. The double mutation E9Q/E74Q does not affect the lifetime of the intermediates, ruling out any participation of these residues in the proton transfer chain of bacteriorhodopsin. This study demonstrates that transient changes in acidity of single amino acid residues can be quantified in situ with infrared spectroscopy. (+info)
The vacuolar proton pump of clathrin-coated vesicles is composed of two general sectors, a cytosolic, ATP hydrolytic domain (V1) and an intramembranous proton channel, V0. V1 is comprised of 8-9 subunits including polypeptides of 50 and 57 kDa, termed SFD (Sub Fifty-eight-kDa Doublet). Although SFD is essential to the activation of ATPase and proton pumping activities catalyzed by holoenzyme, its constituent polypeptides have not been separated to determine their respective roles in ATPase functions. Recent molecular characterization of these subunits revealed that they are isoforms that arise through an alternative splicing mechanism (Zhou, Z., Peng, S.-B., Crider, B.P., Slaughter, C., Xie, X.S., and Stone, D.K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 5878-5884). To determine the functional characteristics of the 57-kDa (SFDalpha)1 and 50-kDa (SFDbeta) isoforms, we expressed these proteins in Escherichia coli. We determined that purified recombinant proteins, rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta, when reassembled with SFD-depleted holoenzyme, are functionally interchangeable in restoration of ATPase and proton pumping activities. In addition, we determined that the V-pump of chromaffin granules has only the SFDalpha isoform in its native state and that rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta are equally effective in restoring ATPase and proton pumping activities to SFD-depleted enzyme. Finally, we found that SFDalpha and SFDbeta structurally interact not only with V1, but also withV0, indicating that these activator subunits may play both structural and functional roles in coupling ATP hydrolysis to proton flow. (+info)