The prevention of malaria in travelers is becoming a more challenging clinical and public health problem because of the global development of drug-resistant Plasmodium strains of malaria and the increasing popularity of travel to exotic locales. Travelers can reduce their risk of acquiring malaria by using bed netting, wearing proper clothing and applying an insect repellent that contains N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide. Chloroquine, once the standard agent for weekly malaria prophylaxis, is no longer reliably effective outside the Middle East and Central America because of the emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. Mefloquine is now the most effective and most recommended antimalarial agent on the U.S. market; however, the side effects of this agent have begun to limit its acceptance. Doxycycline is effective for malaria prophylaxis in travelers who are unable to take mefloquine. Daily proguanil taken in conjunction with weekly chloroquine is an option for pregnant patients traveling to sub-Saharan Africa. Terminal prophylaxis with two weeks of primaquine phosphate can eliminate an asymptomatic carrier state and the later development of malaria in newly returned long-term travelers with probable exposure to Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale. Travelers who elect not to take an antimalarial agent or who are at high risk for malaria and are more than 24 hours from medical care can use self-treatment regimens such as those featuring pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine. Conventional agents may be contraindicated in certain travelers, especially pregnant women and small children, and several prophylactic agents are not available in the United States. Azithromycin and a number of malaria vaccines are currently under investigation. (+info)
Field trials of a rapid test for G6PD deficiency in combination with a rapid diagnosis of malaria.
A rapid single-step screening method for detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6 PD) deficiency was evaluated on Halmahera Island, Maluku Province, Indonesia, and in Shan and Mon States, Myanmar, in combination with a rapid diagnosis of malaria by an acridine orange staining method. Severe deficiency was detected by the rapid test in 45 of 1126 volunteers in Indonesia and 54 of 1079 in Myanmar, but it was difficult to distinguish blood samples with mild deficiency from those with normal activity. 89 of 99 severely deficient cases were later confirmed by formazan ring method in the laboratory, but 5 with mild and 5 with no deficiency were misdiagnosed as severe. Of the samples diagnosed as mild and no deficiency on-site, none was found to be severely deficient by the formazan method. Malaria patients were simultaenously++ detected on-site in 273 samples on Halmahera island and 277 samples from Shan and Mon States. In Mon State, primaquine was prescribed safely to G6 PD-normal malaria patients infected with Plasmodium vivax and/or gametocytes of P. falciparum. The new rapid test for G6 PD deficiency may be useful for detecting severe cases under field conditions, and both rapid tests combined are can be useful in malaria-endemic areas, facilitating early diagnosis, prompt and radical treatment of malaria and suppression of malaria transmission. (+info)
Phosphorylation of arylsulphatase A occurs through multiple interactions with the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase proximal and distal to its retrieval site by the KDEL receptor.
Phosphorylation of oligosaccharides of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulphatase A (ASA), which accumulate in the secretions of cells that mis-sort most of the newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes due to a deficiency of mannose 6-phosphate receptors, was found to be site specific. ASA residing within the secretory route of these cells contains about one third of the incorporated [2-3H]mannose in phosphorylated oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides carrying two phosphate groups are almost 2-fold less frequent than those with one phosphate group and only a few of the phosphate groups are uncovered. Addition of a KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) retention signal prolongs the residence time of ASA within the secretory route 6-fold, but does not result in more efficient phosphorylation. In contrast, more than 90% of the [2-3H]mannose incorporated into secreted ASA (with or without a KDEL retention signal) is present in phosphorylated oligosaccharides. Those with two phosphate groups are almost twice as frequent as those with one phosphate group and most of the phosphate groups are uncovered. Thus, ASA receives N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate groups in a sequential manner at two or more sites located within the secretory route proximal and distal to the site where ASA is retrieved by the KDEL receptor, i.e. proximal to the trans-Golgi. At each of these sites up to two N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate groups can be added to a single oligosaccharide. Of several drugs known to inhibit transit of ASA through the secretory route only the ionophore monensin had a major inhibitory effect on phosphorylation, uncovering and sialylation. (+info)
Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled assessment of chloroquine/primaquine prophylaxis for malaria in nonimmune Colombian soldiers.
To improve upon the efficacy of primaquine prophylaxis for malaria (94%, Plasmodium falciparum malaria; 85%, Plasmodium vivax malaria), we administered chloroquine (300 mg weekly) in combination with primaquine (30 mg daily) to nonimmune Colombian soldiers during 16 weeks of patrol in a region of endemicity and for a further 1 week in base camp. The occurrence of symptomatic parasitemia was determined during those 17 weeks and during a further 3 weeks in base camp. The protective efficacy for the chloroquine/primaquine treatment group of 100 subjects, compared with that for the placebo treatment group of 51 subjects, was 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76-94) against all types of malaria, 89% (95% CI, 61-97) against P. falciparum malaria, and 88% (95% CI, 58-93) against P. vivax malaria. Two chloroquine/primaquine recipients had severe gastrointestinal distress. Comparison of these data with data from a previous study indicates that the addition of chloroquine did not increase the prophylactic efficacy of primaquine. (+info)
Plasmodium falciparum malaria: rosettes are disrupted by quinine, artemisinin, mefloquine, primaquine, pyrimethamine, chloroquine and proguanil.
An assay was developed measuring the disruption of rosettes between Plasmodium falciparuminfected (trophozoites) and uninfected erythrocytes by the antimalarial drugs quinine, artemisinin mefloquine, primaquine, pyrimethamine, chloroquine and proguanil. At 4 hr incubation rosettes were disrupted by all the drugs in a dose dependent manner. Artemisinin and quinine were the most effective anti-malarials at disrupting rosettes at their therapeutic concentrations with South African RSA 14, 15, 17 and The Gambian FCR-3 P. falciparum strains. The least effective drugs were proguanil and chloroquine. A combination of artemisinin and mefloquine was more effective than each drug alone. The combinations of pyrimethamine or primaquine, with quinine disrupted more rosettes than quinine alone. Quinine may be an effective drug in the treatment of severe malaria because the drug efficiently reduces the number of rosettes. (+info)
Longevity of naturally acquired antibody responses to the N- and C-terminal regions of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1.
In an earlier study, we found that individuals with patent infection had significantly higher IgG antibody titers to the 19-kD C-terminal region of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP1) than individuals treated for malaria 1-4 months earlier. These results suggested that the antibody levels decreased rapidly following treatment. The present study was designed to determine the persistence of antibody response to the N- and C-terminal regions of PvMSP1 after infection with P. vivax in individuals from the city of Belem in northern Brazil. Our results demonstrated that the vast majority of individuals had a significant decrease in antibody titers to the C-terminal region of PvMSP1 in a period of two months following treatment. Among responders to the C-terminal region, 44.4% became serologically negative and 44.4% had their antibody titers reduced by an average of 13-fold. Only 11.2% of the individuals had their antibody titers maintained or slightly increased during that period. A decrease in the antibody response to the recombinant protein representing the N-terminal region of PvMSP1 was also noted; however, it was not as dramatic. The rapid decrease in the antibody levels to the C-terminal region of PvMSP1 might contribute to the high risk of reinfection in these individuals. (+info)
Primaquine as prophylaxis for malaria for nonimmune travelers: A comparison with mefloquine and doxycycline.
Malaria prophylaxis for travelers is a controversial issue. The commonly used regimens are associated with side effects, low compliance, or low efficacy, which have raised concern regarding their use. In addition, they are inefficient against the tissue stage of the parasite and thus do not prevent relapses of Plasmodium vivax infection. Primaquine is aimed at the pre-erythrocytic stage and thus may be a potential causal-prophylactic treatment that can abolish the need for long postexposure therapy. During 1995-1998, we followed retrospectively travelers who joined rafting trips to an area in Ethiopia where both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are hyperendemic. Of the 106 travelers who received primaquine, 5.7% developed malaria; of the 19 doxycycline recipients, 53% developed malaria; and of the 25 mefloquine recipients, 52% developed P. vivax malaria (>/=3 months after return from the area of endemicity). Primaquine was well tolerated, and only 1 withdrawal from therapy (due to gastrointestinal symptoms) was reported. Primaquine was shown to be a safe and effective prophylactic drug against both P. falciparum malaria and P. vivax malaria in travelers. (+info)
Efficacy of primaquine regimens for primaquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Thailand.
To define the current efficacy of Fansidar (F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel Switzerland) (pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine), primaquine in a high dose, and artesunate for treating acute Plasmodium vivax malaria, we conducted a comparative clinical trial of these 3 drugs in an open-label study. Patients (15-65 years old) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments regimens in a serial order. Ninety percent of the patients were infected at Thailand-Myanmar border. Patients in group I (n = 23) received Fansidar (3 tablets, 75 mg of pyrimethamine and 1,500 mg of sulfadoxine, a single dose on the first day), group II (n = 23) received Fansidar (3 tablets, 75 mg of pyrimethamine and 1,500 mg of sulfadoxine, a single dose on the first day) and then received primaquine (30 mg a day for 14 days), group III (n = 23) received primaquine (30 mg a day for 14 days), and group IV (n = 23) received artesunate (200 mg once a day for 3 days) and then primaquine (30 mg a day for 14 days). Cure rates on day 28 of follow-up were 40%, 100%, 100%, and 100% in groups I, II, II, and IV, respectively. There were 4 and 5 patients in group I showing post-treatment reappearance of parasitemia at < or = 16 days and between 17 and 28 days, respectively. Patients in the other 3 groups showed negative parasitemias within 7 days after treatment. Artesunate plus primaquine (group IV) cleared parasitemia faster than the other 3 regimens. There is a high proportion of ineffectiveness of Fansidar for treatment of P. vivax malaria and it should be no longer used for treatment of P. vivax malaria acquired at the Thailand-Myanmar border. A high dose of primaquine is safe and effective in the treatment of P. vivax malaria during the 28-day follow-up period. (+info)