Double-blind placebo-controlled study of concurrent administration of albendazole and praziquantel in schoolchildren with schistosomiasis and geohelminths.
A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the concurrent administration of albendazole and praziquantel was conducted in>1500 children with high prevalences of geohelminths and schistosomiasis. The study sites were in China and the Philippines, including 2 strains of Schistosoma japonicum, and 2 different regions of Kenya, 1 each with endemic Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium. Neither medication affected the cure rate of the other. There was no difference between the side effect rate from albendazole or the double placebo. Praziquantel-treated children had more nausea, abdominal pain, and headache but these side effects were statistically more common in children with schistosomiasis, suggesting a strong influence of dying parasites. The subjects were followed for 6 months for changes in infection status, growth parameters, hemoglobin, and schistosomiasis morbidity. In all 4 sites, a significant 6-month increase in serum hemoglobin was observed in children who received praziquantel, strongly supporting population-based mass treatment. (+info)
Effect of mebendazole and praziquantel on glucosephosphate isomerase and glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase in Echinococcus granulosus cyst wall harbored in mice.
AIM: To study effects of antihydatid drugs on glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI) and glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in Echinococcus granulosus cyst wall. METHODS: Mice infected with the parasite for 8-10 months were treated i.g. with mebendazole (Meb) or praziquantel (Pra). The activities of GPI and GAPDH in the cysts were measured by the formation of NADH or NADPH. RESULTS: GPI activity in the cyst wall was 197 +/- 103 U, while that of GAPDH was 25 +/- 13 U. When infected mice were treated i.g. with Meb 25-50 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 7-14 d, no apparent effect on the GAPDH activity in the cyst was found. In mice treated i.g. with praziquantel (Pra) 500 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 14 d, the GAPDH activity in the cyst wall was inhibited by 26.5%. As to GPI activity only the group treated i.g. with Meb 25 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 14 d showed 33.2% inhibition of the enzyme in the collapsed cyst wall. CONCLUSION: GPI and GAPDH are not the major targets attacked by the antihydatid drug. (+info)
Resolution and resurgence of schistosoma haematobium-induced pathology after community-based chemotherapy in ghana, as detected by ultrasound.
Community-based treatment is recommended for endemic populations with urinary schistosomiasis; however, the optimal target group for treatment and retreatment interval have not been established. Using ultrasound, this study identified subpopulations whose lesions were most likely to respond to treatment and characterized resurgence of pathology. Ultrasound examination of 1202 infected patients was followed by chemotherapy with praziquantel. A sample of 698 patients was followed for 18 months after treatment. Nearly all types of bladder pathologies resolved after treatment, regardless of patient's age or intensity of initial infection. However, many patients' upper urinary tract pathologies (62.5%) did not resolve. During the 18-month follow-up period, reappearance of severe bladder pathologies was rare, and <10% of persons had resurgence of mild bladder pathologies. For this population, retreatment is not needed annually but might be cost effective if given several years later. Confirmation from other areas is required before general policies can be formed. (+info)
Seroepidemiology of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: evidence for vanishing endemicity.
The current study summarizes our findings of anti-schistosome egg antibody by the circumoval precipitin test for two different populations in Puerto Rico. One group, exclusively males more than 40 years of age and from all municipalities on the island, was from the Veterans Administration Hospital for the period 1988-1997. The second group resided southeast of San Juan, around the municipality of Caguas and adjacent municipalities east of Caguas, was of both sexes and mostly until 1997 of undetermined ages for the period 1993-1997. Results reveal a yearly decrease in testing requests from the Veterans Administration Hospital from 148 in 1988 and 1989 with 16% positive to three in 1996 through 1998 with none positive. This decrease in testing requests was because of a decrease of suspicion of schistosomiasis in this group. The other patient population from the Caguas region showed a gradual but continuous decrease in seropositive individuals from 21% in 1993 to 12% in 1996, with precipitous decrease to 5% in 1997 and only 1% in 1998. Moreover, there were four patients from which at least two serum samples were obtained one or two years apart and tested. In each instance the more recently obtained sample had lower antibody reactions than the first as reflected in lower percentages of positive egg reactors. The fact that they were treated with praziquantel after the first testing also suggests that the infected population was being eliminated through chemotherapy. These combined results suggest the elimination of infections with Schistosoma mansoni in the traditionally high prevalence regions east of San Juan in the absence of any proactive control efforts in Puerto Rico. Because of the rapid urbanizing of Puerto Rico, the one identifiable control effort is economic development and well being. (+info)
Cost of school-based drug treatment in Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development.
It has been argued that targeting delivery of anthelmintics to school-children by taking advantage of the existing education infrastructure and administrative system can be one of the most cost-effective approaches in minimizing the intensity of infections with both schistosomiasis and major intestinal nematodes in many developing countries. The study was conducted in January 1997, shortly after the completion of the drug intervention programme. This paper provides an analysis of the costs of providing age-targeted treatment of school-children for urinary schistosomiasis using praziquantel and for intestinal nematodes using albendazole as an integral part of the School Health Programme in Tanga Region, Tanzania. The analysis shows that the total financial cost of the intervention programme in 1996 prices was US$54 252.28 (exchange rate: TSH 573 = US$1). Of this amount, the cost of drugs constitutes 80.6%, while the delivery cost appears relatively low, representing just below 20%. Even when the opportunity cost of unpaid days of labour input is included, the cost of drugs still remains the highest cost component of the intervention (55.8%). In the current epidemiological and logistic setting of Tanzania, the financial cost per child treated using praziquantel, which involved prior screening at the school level, was US$0.79, while treatment using albendazole was as low as US$0.23, of which US$0.20 was drug purchase cost. It is concluded that the base cost of delivering a universal, standard, school-based health intervention such as albendazole can be as low as US$0.03 per child tested, but even a very slight increase in the complexity of delivery can have a very significant impact on the cost of intervention. (+info)
Evidence for an improvement in cognitive function following treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Chinese primary schoolchildren.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, treatment trial was conducted in Sichuan, China to investigate the unique and combined effects on the cognitive function (working memory) of children after treating geohelminth infections with albendazole and treating Schistosoma japonicum infection with praziquantel. One hundred eighty-one children 5-16 years of age participated. At baseline, the praziquantel and placebo groups were similar in all background characteristics. Three months after praziquantel treatment, there was a significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum infection. There were significant age group by praziquantel treatment interaction effects in three of the five cognitive tests, Fluency, Picture Search, and Free Recall, with effects being strongest in the youngest children (5-7 years old). Exploratory analysis within the youngest children showed a significant positive main effect of treatment on Fluency (P < 0.001), after controlling for sex, anthropometric, and parasitic and iron status. There was also a treatment by height-for-age interaction (P = 0.03) and a treatment by iron status interaction (P = 0.024) on Fluency. There was a treatment by S. japonicum intensity interaction (P < 0.001) on Free Recall, but the main effect of treatment on Picture Search was not significant (P = 0.058). Younger children and those who are physically the most vulnerable are likely to benefit the most from the treatment of S. japonicum infection in terms of improved performance on tests of working memory. (+info)
Relationships between several markers of extracellular matrix turn-over and ultrasonography in human Schistosomiasis mansoni.
We measured the concentrations of several serum and urinary fibrosis markers, which are metabolites of extracellular matrix, in schistosomiasis patients to investigate their relationship with the ultrasonographic scoring system and with parasitologic data. This study was conducted in patients with various stages of the disease evaluated by ultrasonography (intestinal disease with no organ involvement, with minor hepatosplenic involvement and with severe disease) and in endemic controls. The level of hyaluronan, which were increased in infected patients compared with controls (P < 0.01), was the only fibrosis marker that correlated with the ultrasonographic score (P = 0.003) and is thus a potential serum marker of schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Urinary free pyridinoline levels were lower (P < 0.001) in infected patients with fibrosis (score > or = 1) than in nonfibrotic patients. A two-year follow-up of the patients treated with praziquantel showed that type I collagen and hyaluronan decreased during the first year post-treatment, whereas free pyridinolines peaked after 12 months and decreased thereafter. (+info)
Long-lasting sonographic and histopathological findings in cured clonorchiasis of rabbits.
To ascertain residual sonographic and histopathological findings of clonorchiasis after treatment, the present study evaluated sonographic findings in rabbits which were infected with 500 metacercariae of C. sinensis every 6 months for 18 months after treatment with praziquantel. The sonographic findings were analyzed in terms of intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and periductal echogenicity, and histopathological findings were observed after the last sonographic examination. Compared with the sonographic findings before treatment, dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts became mild to some degree in four of the seven cases and increased periductal echogenicity resolved in four of them. The histopathological specimens after 18 months showed that periductal inflammation has almost resolved but moderate dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts and mucosal hyperplasia persisted. The periductal fibrosis minimally resolved. The long-lasting sonographic findings in cured clonorchiasis make sonography less specific. (+info)